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  1. Machine learning represents a milestone in data-driven research, including material informatics, robotics, and computer-aided drug discovery. With the continuously growing virtual and synthetically available chemical space, efficient and robust quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) methods are required to uncover molecules with desired properties. Herein, we propose variable-length-array SMILES-based (VLA-SMILES) structural descriptors that expand conventional SMILES descriptors widely used in machine learning. This structural representation extends the family of numerically coded SMILES, particularly binary SMILES, to expedite the discovery of new deep learning QSAR models with high predictive ability. VLA-SMILES descriptors were shown to speed up the training of QSAR models basedmore »on multilayer perceptron (MLP) with optimized backpropagation (ATransformedBP), resilient propagation (iRPROP‒), and Adam optimization learning algorithms featuring rational train–test splitting, while improving the predictive ability toward the more compute-intensive binary SMILES representation format. All the tested MLPs under the same length-array-based SMILES descriptors showed similar predictive ability and convergence rate of training in combination with the considered learning procedures. Validation with the Kennard–Stone train–test splitting based on the structural descriptor similarity metrics was found more effective than the partitioning with the ranking by activity based on biological activity values metrics for the entire set of VLA-SMILES featured QSAR. Robustness and the predictive ability of MLP models based on VLA-SMILES were assessed via the method of QSAR parametric model validation. In addition, the method of the statistical H0 hypothesis testing of the linear regression between real and observed activities based on the F2,n−2 -criteria was used for predictability estimation among VLA-SMILES featured QSAR-MLPs (with n being the volume of the testing set). Both approaches of QSAR parametric model validation and statistical hypothesis testing were found to correlate when used for the quantitative evaluation of predictabilities of the designed QSAR models with VLA-SMILES descriptors.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  2. Optoelectronic properties of devices made of two-dimensional materials depend largely on the dielectric constant and thickness of a substrate. To systematically investigate the thickness dependence of dielectric constant from first principles, we have implemented a double-cell method based on a theoretical framework by Martyna and Tuckerman [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 2810 (1999)] and therewith developed a general and robust procedure to calculate dielectric constants of slab systems from electric displacement and electric field, which is free from material-specific adjustable parameters. We have applied the procedure to a prototypical substrate, Al 2 O 3 , thereby computing high-frequency and static dielectricmore »constants of a finite slab as a function of the number of crystalline unit-cell layers. We find that two and four layers are sufficient for the high-frequency and static dielectric constants of (0001) Al 2 O 3 slabs to recover 90% of the respective bulk values computed by a Berry-phase method. This method allows one to estimate the thickness dependence of dielectric constants for various materials used in emerging two-dimensional nanophotonics, while providing an analytic formula that can be incorporated into photonics simulations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 8, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2023
  4. Metal-fullerene compounds are characterized by significant electron transfer to the fullerene cage, giving rise to an electric dipole moment. We use the method of electrostatic beam deflection to verify whether such reactions take place within superfluid helium nanodroplets between an embedded C 60 molecule and either alkali (heliophobic) or rare-earth (heliophilic) atoms. The two cases lead to distinctly different outcomes: C 60 Na n ( n = 1–4) display no discernable dipole moment, while C 60 Yb is strongly polar. This suggests that the fullerene and small alkali clusters fail to form a charge-transfer bond in the helium matrix despitemore »their strong van der Waals attraction. The C 60 Yb dipole moment, on the other hand, is in agreement with the value expected for an ionic complex.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 4, 2023
  5. Abstract

    Mechanical behavior of 2D materials such as MoS2can be tuned by the ancient art of kirigami. Experiments and atomistic simulations show that 2D materials can be stretched more than 50% by strategic insertion of cuts. However, designing kirigami structures with desired mechanical properties is highly sensitive to the pattern and location of kirigami cuts. We use reinforcement learning (RL) to generate a wide range of highly stretchable MoS2kirigami structures. The RL agent is trained by a small fraction (1.45%) of molecular dynamics simulation data, randomly sampled from a search space of over 4 million candidates for MoS2kirigami structures withmore »6 cuts. After training, the RL agent not only proposes 6-cut kirigami structures that have stretchability above 45%, but also gains mechanistic insight to propose highly stretchable (above 40%) kirigami structures consisting of 8 and 10 cuts from a search space of billion candidates as zero-shot predictions.

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