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  1. Abstract Phosphorus (P) is a critical element for life on Earth, yet the cosmic production sites of P are relatively uncertain. To understand how P has evolved in the solar neighborhood, we measured abundances for 163 FGK stars over a range of –1.09 < [Fe/H] < 0.47 using observations from the Habitable-zone Planet Finder instrument on the Hobby–Eberly Telescope. Atmospheric parameters were calculated by fitting a combination of astrometry, photometry, and Fe I line equivalent widths. Phosphorus abundances were measured by matching synthetic spectra to a P I feature at 10529.52 Å. Our [P/Fe] ratios show that chemical evolution models generally underpredict P over the observed metallicity range. Additionally, we find that the [P/Fe] differs by ∼0.1 dex between thin disk and thick disk stars that were identified with kinematics. The P abundances were compared with α -elements, iron-peak, odd-Z, and s-process elements, and we found that the evolution of P in the disk most strongly resembles that of the α -elements. We also find that molar P/C and N/C ratios for our sample match the scatter seen from other abundance studies. Finally, we measure a [P/Fe] = 0.09 ± 0.1 ratio in one low- α halo star and probable Gaia–Sausage–Enceladus member, an abundance ratio ∼0.3–0.5 dex lower than the other Milky Way disk and halo stars at similar metallicities. Overall, we find that P is likely most significantly produced by massive stars in core-collapse supernovae, based on the largest P abundance survey to date. 
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  2. Abstract Little is known about the origin of the fastest stars in the Galaxy. Our understanding of the chemical evolution history of the Milky Way and surrounding dwarf galaxies allows us to use the chemical composition of a star to investigate its origin and to say whether it was formed in situ or was accreted. However, the fastest stars, the hypervelocity stars, are young and massive and their chemical composition has not yet been analyzed. Though it is difficult to analyze the chemical composition of a massive young star, we are well versed in the analysis of late-type stars. We have used high-resolution ARCES/3.5 m Apache Point Observatory, MIKE/Magellan spectra to study the chemical details of 15 late-type hypervelocity star candidates. With Gaia EDR3 astrometry and spectroscopically determined radial velocities we found total velocities with a range of 274–520 km s −1 and mean value of 381 km s −1 . Therefore, our sample stars are not fast enough to be classified as hypervelocity stars, and are what is known as extreme-velocity stars. Our sample has a wide iron abundance range of −2.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ −0.9. Their chemistry indicates that at least 50% of them are accreted extragalactic stars, with iron-peak elements consistent with prior enrichment by sub-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia supernovae. Without indication of binary companions, their chemical abundances and orbital parameters indicate that they are the accelerated tidal debris of disrupted dwarf galaxies. 
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  3. ABSTRACT The characteristics of the stellar populations in the Galactic bulge inform and constrain the Milky Way’s formation and evolution. The metal-poor population is particularly important in light of cosmological simulations, which predict that some of the oldest stars in the Galaxy now reside in its centre. The metal-poor bulge appears to consist of multiple stellar populations that require dynamical analyses to disentangle. In this work, we undertake a detailed chemodynamical study of the metal-poor stars in the inner Galaxy. Using R ∼ 20 000 VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of 319 metal-poor (−2.55 dex ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0.83 dex, with $\overline{\rm {[Fe/H]}}$ = −0.84 dex) stars, we perform stellar parameter analysis and report 12 elemental abundances (C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ba, and Ce) with precisions of ≈0.10 dex. Based on kinematic and spatial properties, we categorize the stars into four groups, associated with the following Galactic structures: the inner bulge, the outer bulge, the halo, and the disc. We find evidence that the inner and outer bulge population is more chemically complex (i.e. higher chemical dimensionality and less correlated abundances) than the halo population. This result suggests that the older bulge population was enriched by a larger diversity of nucleosynthetic events. We also find one inner bulge star with a [Ca/Mg] ratio consistent with theoretical pair-instability supernova yields and two stars that have chemistry consistent with globular cluster stars. 
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  4. Abstract

    Cell‐seeded scaffolds play critical roles in the production of tissue engineered intestine (TEI), a potential strategy for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The current study compares polyglycolic acid (PGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and collagen as scaffolds for TEI production. Tubular PGA scaffolds were prepared from nonwoven BIOFELT®. Tubular PCL scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. Tubular collagen scaffolds were prepared using CollaTape, a wound dressing material. Both PGA and collagen were coated with poly‐l‐lactic acid (PLLA) to improve scaffold mechanical properties. Pore size, porosity, microstructure, mechanical properties (suture retention strength and ultimate compressive force) were determined. The scaffolds were first seeded with crypt stem cells isolated from 1 to 3 day old rat pups and then implanted into the peritoneal cavity of nude rats. After 4 weeks ofin vivoincubation, these cell‐seeded scaffolds were harvested for assessment of the TEI produced. Of the three materials compared, PLLA coated tubular PGA scaffolds had the appropriate pore size, mechanical properties and degradation rate leading to the production of TEI with an architecture similar to that of native rat intestine. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 750–760, 2019.

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    One of the high-level goals of Galactic archaeology is chemical tagging of stars across the Milky Way to piece together its assembly history. For this to work, stars born together must be uniquely chemically homogeneous. Wide binary systems are an important laboratory to test this underlying assumption. Here, we present the detailed chemical abundance patterns of 50 stars across 25 wide binary systems comprised of main-sequence stars of similar spectral type identified in Gaia DR2 with the aim of quantifying their level of chemical homogeneity. Using high-resolution spectra obtained with McDonald Observatory, we derive stellar atmospheric parameters and precise detailed chemical abundances for light/odd-Z (Li, C, Na, Al, Sc, V, Cu), α (Mg, Si, Ca), Fe-peak (Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn), and neutron capture (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, Eu) elements. Results indicate that 80 per cent (20 pairs) of the systems are homogeneous in [Fe/H] at levels below 0.02 dex. These systems are also chemically homogeneous in all elemental abundances studied, with offsets and dispersions consistent with measurement uncertainties. We also find that wide binary systems are far more chemically homogeneous than random pairings of field stars of similar spectral type. These results indicate that wide binary systems tend to be chemically homogeneous but in some cases they can differ in their detailed elemental abundances at a level of [X/H] ∼ 0.10 dex, overall implying chemical tagging in broad strokes can work.

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