skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Nguyen, Duc Tri"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Many currently deployed public-key cryptosystems are based on the difficulty of the discrete logarithm and integer factorization problems. However, given an adequately sized quantum computer, these problems can be solved in polynomial time as a function of the key size. Due to the future threat of quantum computing to current cryptographic standards, alternative algorithms that remain secure under quantum computing are being evaluated for future use. One such algorithm is CRYSTALS-Dilithium, a lattice-based digital signature scheme, which is a finalist in the NIST Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC) competition. As a part of this evaluation, high-performance implementations of these algorithms must be investigated. This work presents a high-performance implementation of CRYSTALS-Dilithium targeting FPGAs. In particular, we present a design that achieves the best latency for an FPGA implementation to date. We also compare our results with the most-relevant previous work on hardware implementations of NIST Round 3 post-quantum digital signature candidates.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 6, 2022
  2. Compared to traditional hardware development methodologies, High-Level Synthesis (HLS) offers a faster time-to-market and lower design cost at the expense of implementation efficiency. Although Software/Hardware Codesign has been used in many areas, its usability for benchmarking of candidates in cryptographic competitions has been largely unexplored. This paper provides a comparison of the HLS- and RTL-based design methodologies when applied to the hardware design of the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) – a core arithmetic function of lattice-based Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC). As a next step, we apply Software/Hardware Codesign approach to the implementation of three PQC schemes based on NTT. Then, we integrate our HLS implementation into the Xilinx SDSoC environment. We demonstrate that an overhead of SDSoC compared to traditional Bare Metal approach is acceptable. This paper also shows that an HLS implementation obtained by modeling a block diagram is typically much better than an implementation obtained by using design space exploration. We conclude that the HLS/SDSoC and RTL/Bare Metal approaches generate comparable results.
  3. Due to an emerging threat of quantum computing, one of the major challenges facing the cryptographic community is a timely transition from traditional public-key cryptosystems, such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography, to a new class of algorithms, collectively referred to as Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC). Several promising candidates for a new PQC standard can have their software and hardware implementations accelerated using the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT). In this paper, we present an improved hardware architecture for NTT, with the hardware-friendly modular reduction, and demonstrate that this architecture can be efficiently implemented in hardware using High-Level Synthesis (HLS). The novel feature of the proposed architecture is an original memory write-back scheme, which assists in preparing coefficients for performing later NTT stages, saving memory storage used for precomputed constants. Our design is the most efficient for the case when log2N is even. The latency of our proposed architecture is approximately equal to (N log2(N) +3N)/4 clock cycles. As a proof of concept, we implemented the NTT operation for several parameter sets used in the PQC algorithms NewHope, FALCON, qTESLA, and CRYSTALS-DILITHIUM.
  4. When quantum computers become scalable and reliable, they are likely to break all public-key cryptography standards, such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography. The projected threat of quantum computers has led the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to an effort aimed at replacing existing public-key cryptography standards with new quantum-resistant alternatives. In December 2017, 69 candidates were accepted by NIST to Round 1 of the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) standardization process. NTRUEncrypt is one of the most well-known PQC algorithms that has withstood cryptanalysis. The speed of NTRUEncrypt in software, especially on embedded software platforms, is limited by the long execution time of its primary operation, polynomial multiplication. In this paper, we investigate speeding up NTRUEncrypt using software/hardware codesign on a Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC). Polynomial multiplication is implemented in the Programmable Logic (PL) of Zynq using two approaches: traditional Register-Transfer Level (RTL) and High-Level Synthesis (HLS). The remaining operations of NTRUEncrypt are executed in software on the Processing System (PS) of Zynq, using the bare-metal mode. The speed-up of our software/hardware codesigns vs. purely software implementations is determined experimentally and analyzed in the paper. The results are reported for the RTL-based and HLS-based hardwaremore »accelerators, and compared to the best available software implementation, included in the NIST submission package. The speed-ups for encryption were 2.4 and 3.9, depending on the selected parameter set. For decryption, the corresponding speed-ups were 4.0 and 6.8. In addition, for the polynomial multiplication operation itself, the speed up was in excess of 75. Our code for the NTRUEncrypt polynomial multiplier accelerator is being made open-source for further evaluation on multiple software/hardware platforms.« less
  5. When quantum computers become scalable and reliable, they are likely to break all public-key cryptography standards, such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography. The projected threat of quantum computers has led the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to an effort aimed at replacing existing public-key cryptography standards with new quantum-resistant alternatives. In December 2017, 69 candidates were accepted by NIST to Round 1 of the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) standardization process. NTRUEncrypt is one of the most well-known PQC algorithms that has withstood cryptanalysis. The speed of NTRUEncrypt in software, especially on embedded software platforms, is limited by the long execution time of its primary operation, polynomial multiplication. In this paper, we investigate speeding up NTRUEncrypt using software/hardware codesign on a Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC). Polynomial multiplication is implemented in the Programmable Logic (PL) of Zynq using two approaches: traditional Register-Transfer Level (RTL) and High-Level Synthesis (HLS). The remaining operations of NTRUEncrypt are executed in software on the Processing System (PS) of Zynq, using the bare-metal mode. The speed-up of our software/hardware codesigns vs. purely software implementations is determined experimentally and analyzed in the paper. The results are reported for the RTL-based and HLS-based hardwaremore »accelerators, and compared to the best available software implementation, included in the NIST submission package. The speed-ups for encryption were 2.4 and 3.9, depending on the selected parameter set. For decryption, the corresponding speed-ups were 4.0 and 6.8. In addition, for the polynomial multiplication operation itself, the speed up was in excess of 75. Our code for the NTRUEncrypt polynomial multiplier accelerator is being made open-source for further evaluation on multiple software/hardware platforms.« less
  6. The speed of NTRU-based Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs) in software, especially on embedded software platforms, is limited by the long execution time of its primary operation, polynomial multiplication. In this paper, we investigate the potential for speeding up the implementations of four NTRU-based KEMs, using software/hardware codesign, when targeting Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC). All investigated algorithms compete in Round 1 of the NIST PQC standardization process. They include: ntru-kem from the NTRUEncrypt submission, Streamlined NTRU Prime and NTRU LPRime KEMs of the NTRU Prime candidate, and NTRU- HRSS-KEM from the submission of the same name. The most time-consuming operation, polynomial multiplication, is implemented in the Programmable Logic (PL) of Zynq UltraScale+ (i.e., in hardware) using constant-time hardware architectures most appropriate for a given algorithm. The remaining operations are executed in the Processing System (PS) of Zynq, based on the ARM Cortex-A53 Application Processing Unit. The speed-ups of our software/hardware codesigns vs. purely software implementations, running on the same Zynq platform, are determined experimentally, and analyzed in the paper. Our experiments reveal substantial differences among the investigated candidates in terms of their potential to benefit from hardware accelerators, with the special focus on accelerators aimed at offloading to hardwaremore »only the most time-consuming operation of a given cryptosystems. The demonstrated speed-ups vs. functionally equivalent purely software implementations vary between 4.0 and 42.7 for encapsulation, and between 6.4 and 149.7 for decapsulation.« less