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  1. Abstract

    Here we have performed single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) experiments on two high-quality crystal platelets of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite (Mg0.88Fe0.0653+Fe0.0352+Al0.03)(Al0.11Si0.90)O3 (Fe10-Al14-Bgm) up to 64.6(6) GPa at room temperature in a Boehler-Almax type diamond-anvil cell. Refinements on the collected SCXRD patterns reveal reliable structural information of single-crystal Fe10-Al14-Bgm, including unit-cell parameters, atomic coordinates, and anisotropic displacement parameters. Together with Mössbauer and electron microprobe analyses, our best single-crystal refinement model indicates that the sample contains ~6.5 mol% Fe3+, 3.5 mol% Fe2+, and 3 mol% Al3+ in the large pseudo-dodecahedral site (A site), and ~11 mol% Al3+ in the small octahedral site (B site). This may indicate that Al3+ in bridgmanite preferentially occupies the B site. Our results show that the compression of Fe10-Al14-Bgm with pressure causes monotonical decreases in the volumes of AO12 pseudo-dodecahedron and BO6 octahedron (VA and VB, respectively) as well as the associated A-O and B-O bond lengths. The interatomic angles of B-O1-B and B-O2-B decrease from 145.2–145.8° at 4.2(1) GPa to 143.3–143.5° at 64.6(6) GPa. Quantitative calculations of octahedral tilting angles (Ф) show that Ф increases smoothly with pressure. We found a linear relationship between the polyhedral volume ratio and the Ф in the bridgmanite with different compositions: VA/VB = –0.049Φ + 5.549. Our results indicate an increased distortion of the Fe10-Al14-Bgm structure with pressure, which might be related to the distortion of A-site Fe2+. The local environmental changes of A-site Fe2+ in bridgmanite could explain previous results on the hyperfine parameters, abnormal lattice thermal conductivity, mean force constant of iron bonds and other physical properties, which in turn provide insights into our understanding on the geophysics and geochemistry of the planet.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in the lower mantle, can play an essential role in deep-Earth hydrogen storage and circulation processes. To better evaluate the hydrogen storage capacity and its substitution mechanism in bridgmanite occurring in nature, we have synthesized high-quality single-crystal bridgmanite with a composition of (Mg0.88Fe0.052+Fe0.053+Al0.03)(Si0.88Al0.11H0.01)O3 at nearly water-saturated environments relevant to topmost lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions. The crystallographic site position of hydrogen in the synthetic (Fe,Al)-bearing bridgmanite is evaluated by a time-of-flight single-crystal neutron diffraction scheme, together with supporting evidence from polarized infrared spectroscopy. Analysis of the results shows that the primary hydrogen site has an OH bond direction nearly parallel to the crystallographic b axis of the orthorhombic bridgmanite lattice, where hydrogen is located along the line between two oxygen anions to form a straight geometry of covalent and hydrogen bonds. Our modeled results show that hydrogen is incorporated into the crystal structure via coupled substitution of Al3+ and H+ simultaneously exchanging for Si4+, which does not require any cation vacancy. The concentration of hydrogen evaluated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry and neutron diffraction is ~0.1 wt% H2O and consistent with each other, showing that neutron diffraction can be an alternative quantitative means for the characterization of trace amounts of hydrogen and its site occupancy in nominally anhydrous minerals.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  3. Abstract Thermoelastic properties of mantle candidate minerals are essential to our understanding of geophysical phenomena, geochemistry, and geodynamic evolutions of the silicate Earth. However, the lower-mantle mineralogy remains much debated due to the lack of single-crystal elastic moduli (Cij) and aggregate sound velocities of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral of the planet, at the lower mantle pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. Here we report single-crystal Cij of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite, Mg0.88Fe0.1Al0.14Si0.90O3 (Fe10-Al14-Bgm) with Fe3+/ΣFe = ~0.65, up to ~82 GPa using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brillouin light scattering (BLS), and impulsive stimulated light scattering (ISLS) measurements in diamond-anvil cells (DACs). Two crystal platelets with orientations of (–0.50, 0.05, –0.86) and (0.65, –0.59, 0.48), that are sensitive to deriving all nine Cij, are used for compressional and shear wave velocity (νP and νS) measurements as a function of azimuthal angles over 200° at each experimental pressure. Our results show that all Cij of singe-crystal Fe10-Al14-Bgm increase monotonically with pressure with small uncertainties of 1–2% (±1σ), except C55 and C23, which have uncertainties of 3–4%. Using the third-order Eulerian finite-strain equations to model the elasticity data yields the aggregate adiabatic bulk and shear moduli and respective pressure derivatives at the reference pressure of 25 GPa: KS = 326 ± 4 GPa, µ = 211 ± 2 GPa, KS′ = 3.32 ± 0.04, and µ′ = 1.66 ± 0.02 GPa. The high-pressure aggregate νS and νP of Fe10-Al14-Bgm are 2.6–3.5% and 3.1–4.7% lower than those of MgSiO3 bridgmanite end-member, respectively. These data are used with literature reports on bridgmanite with different Fe and Al contents to quantitatively evaluate pressure and compositional effects on their elastic properties. Comparing with one-dimensional seismic profiles, our modeled velocity profiles of major lower-mantle mineral assemblages at relevant P-T suggest that the lower mantle could likely consist of about 89 vol% (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite. After considering uncertainties, our best-fit model is still indistinguishable from pyrolitic or chondritic models. 
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  4. Abstract Acoustic compressional and shear wave velocities (VP, VS) of anhydrous (AHRG) and hydrous rhyolitic glasses (HRG) containing 3.28 wt% (HRG-3) and 5.90 wt% (HRG-6) total water concentration (H2Ot) have been measured using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy up to 3 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at ambient temperature. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure the speciation of H2O in the glasses up to 3 GPa. At ambient pressure, HRG-3 contains 1.58 (6) wt% hydroxyl groups (OH–) and 1.70 (7) wt% molecular water (H2Om) while HRG-6 contains 1.67 (10) wt% OH– and 4.23 (17) wt% H2Om where the numbers in parentheses are ±1σ. With increasing pressure, very little H2Om, if any, converts to OH– within uncertainties in hydrous rhyolitic glasses such that HRG-6 contains much more H2Om than HRG-3 at all experimental pressures. We observe a nonlinear relationship between high-pressure sound velocities and H2Ot, which is attributed to the distinct effects of each water species on acoustic velocities and elastic moduli of hydrous glasses. Near ambient pressure, depolymerization due to OH– reduces VS and G more than VP and KS. VP and KS in both anhydrous and hydrous glasses decrease with increasing pressure up to ~1–2 GPa before increasing with pressure. Above ~1–2 GPa, VP and KS in both hydrous glasses converge with those in AHRG. In particular, VP in HRG-6 crosses over and becomes higher than VP in AHRG. HRG-6 displays lower VS and G than HRG-3 near ambient pressure, but VS and G in these glasses converge above ~2 GPa. Our results show that hydrous rhyolitic glasses with ~2–4 wt% H2Om can be as incompressible as their anhydrous counterpart above ~1.5 GPa. The nonlinear effects of hydration on high-pressure acoustic velocities and elastic moduli of rhyolitic glasses observed here may provide some insight into the behavior of hydrous silicate melts in felsic magma chambers at depth. 
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  5. Abstract

    High‐quality single‐crystals of (Al,Fe)‐bearing bridgmanite, Mg0.88Fe3+0.065Fe2+0.035Al0.14Si0.90O3, of hundreds of micrometer size were synthesized at 24 GPa and 1800 °C in a Kawai‐type apparatus from the starting hydrous melt containing ~6.7 wt% water. Analyses of synthesized bridgmanite using petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy show that the crystals are chemically homogeneous and inclusion free in micrometer‐ to nanometer‐spatial resolutions. Nanosecondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses on selected platelets show ~1,020(±70) ppm wt water (hydrogen). The high water concentration in the structure of bridgmanite was further confirmed using polarized and unpolarized Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses with two pronounced OH‐stretching bands at ~3,230 and ~3,460 cm−1. Our results indicate that lower‐mantle bridgmanite can accommodate relatively high amount of water. Therefore, dehydration melting at the topmost lower mantle by downward flow of transition zone materials would require water content exceeding ~0.1 wt%.

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