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  1. Abstract

    We present morphologies of galaxies atz≳ 9 resolved by JWST/NIRCam 2–5μm imaging. Our sample consists of 22 galaxy candidates identified by stringent dropout and photo-zcriteria in GLASS, CEERS, SMACS J0723, and Stephan’s Quintet flanking fields, one of which has been spectroscopically identified atz= 11.44. We perform surface brightness (SB) profile fitting with GALFIT for six bright galaxies with a signal-to-noise ratio = 10–40 on an individual basis and for stacked faint galaxies with secure point-spread functions (PSFs) of the NIRCam real data, carefully evaluating systematics by Monte Carlo simulations. We compare our results with those of previous JWST studies, and confirm that the effective radiireof our measurements are consistent with those of previous measurements atz∼ 9. We obtainre≃ 200–300 pc with the exponential-like profiles, Sérsic indexes ofn≃ 1–1.5, for galaxies atz∼ 12–16, indicating that the relation ofre∝ (1 +z)sfors=1.220.16+0.17explains cosmic evolution overz∼ 0–16 forLz=3*galaxies. One bright (MUV= −21 mag) galaxy atz∼ 12, GL-z12-1, has an extremely compact profile withre= 39 ± 11 pc that is surely extended over the PSF. Even in the case that the GL-z12-1 SB is fit by active galactic nuclei + galaxy composite profiles, the best-fit galaxy component is again compact,re=4815+38pc, which is significantly (>5σ) smaller than the typicalrevalue atz∼ 12. Compared with numerical simulations, we find that such a compact galaxy naturally forms atz≳ 10, and that frequent mergers at the early epoch produce more extended galaxies following there∝ (1 +z)srelation.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Abstract We present new Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6 and 4.5 μ m mosaics of three fields, E-COSMOS, DEEP2-F3, and ELAIS-N1. Our mosaics include both new IRAC observations as well as reprocessed archival data in these fields. These fields are part of the HSC-Deep grizy survey and have a wealth of additional ancillary data. The addition of these new IRAC mosaics is critical in allowing for improved photometric redshifts and stellar population parameters at cosmic noon and earlier epochs. The total area mapped by this work is ∼17 deg 2 with a mean integration time of ≈1200s, providing a median 5 σ depth of 23.7(23.3) at 3.6(4.5) μ m in AB. We perform SExtractor photometry both on the combined mosaics as well as the single-epoch mosaics taken ≈6 months apart. The resultant IRAC number counts show good agreement with previous studies. In combination with the wealth of existing and upcoming spectrophotometric data in these fields, our IRAC mosaics will enable a wide range of galactic evolution and AGN studies. With that goal in mind, we make the combined IRAC mosaics and coverage maps of these three fields publicly available. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We investigate the stellar mass–black hole mass (*BH) relation with type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) down toBH=107M, corresponding to a ≃ −21 absolute magnitude in rest-frame ultraviolet, atz= 2–2.5. Exploiting the deep and large-area spectroscopic survey of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), we identify 66 type 1 AGNs withBHranging from 107–1010Mthat are measured with single-epoch virial method using Civemission lines detected in the HETDEX spectra.*of the host galaxies are estimated from optical to near-infrared photometric data taken with Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and ground-based 4–8 m class telescopes byCIGALEspectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We further assess the validity of SED fitting in two cases by host-nuclear decomposition performed through surface brightness profile fitting on spatially resolved host galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope/NIRCam CEERS data. We obtain the*BHrelation covering the unexplored low-mass ranges ofBH107108M, and conduct forward modeling to fully account for the selection biases and observational uncertainties. The intrinsic*BHrelation atz∼ 2 has a moderate positive offset of 0.52 ± 0.14 dex from the local relation, suggestive of more efficient black hole growth at higher redshift even in the low-mass regime ofBH107108M. Our*BHrelation is inconsistent with theBHsuppression at the low-*regime predicted by recent hydrodynamic simulations at a 98% confidence level, suggesting that feedback in the low-mass systems may be weaker than those produced in hydrodynamic simulations.

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  4. Abstract

    We  present the demography of the dynamics and gas mass fraction of 33 extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with metallicities of 0.015–0.195Zand low stellar masses of 104–108Min the local universe. We conduct deep optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for the low-mass EMPGs with the medium-high resolution (R= 7500) grism of the 8 m Subaru FOCAS IFU instrument by the EMPRESS 3D survey, and investigate the Hαemission of the EMPGs. Exploiting the resolution high enough for the low-mass galaxies, we derive gas dynamics with the Hαlines by the fitting of three-dimensional disk models. We obtain an average maximum rotation velocity (vrot) of 15 ± 3 km s−1and an average intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ0) of 27 ± 10 km s−1for 15 spatially resolved EMPGs out of 33 EMPGs, and find that all 15 EMPGs havevrot/σ0< 1 suggesting dispersion-dominated systems. There is a clear decreasing trend ofvrot/σ0with the decreasing stellar mass and metallicity. We derive the gas mass fraction (fgas) for all 33 EMPGs, and find no clear dependence on stellar mass and metallicity. Thesevrot/σ0andfgastrends should be compared with young high-zgalaxies observed by the forthcoming JWST IFS programs to understand the physical origins of the EMPGs in the local universe.

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  5. Abstract We present the first publicly released catalog of sources obtained from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). HETDEX is an integral field spectroscopic survey designed to measure the Hubble expansion parameter and angular diameter distance at 1.88 < z < 3.52 by using the spatial distribution of more than a million Ly α -emitting galaxies over a total target area of 540 deg 2 . The catalog comes from contiguous fiber spectra coverage of 25 deg 2 of sky from 2017 January through 2020 June, where object detection is performed through two complementary detection methods: one designed to search for line emission and the other a search for continuum emission. The HETDEX public release catalog is dominated by emission-line galaxies and includes 51,863 Ly α -emitting galaxy (LAE) identifications and 123,891 [O ii ]-emitting galaxies at z < 0.5. Also included in the catalog are 37,916 stars, 5274 low-redshift ( z < 0.5) galaxies without emission lines, and 4976 active galactic nuclei. The catalog provides sky coordinates, redshifts, line identifications, classification information, line fluxes, [O ii ] and Ly α line luminosities where applicable, and spectra for all identified sources processed by the HETDEX detection pipeline. Extensive testing demonstrates that HETDEX redshifts agree to within Δ z < 0.02, 96.1% of the time to those in external spectroscopic catalogs. We measure the photometric counterpart fraction in deep ancillary Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging and find that only 55.5% of the LAE sample has an r -band continuum counterpart down to a limiting magnitude of r ∼ 26.2 mag (AB) indicating that an LAE search of similar sensitivity to HETDEX with photometric preselection would miss nearly half of the HETDEX LAE catalog sample. Data access and details about the catalog can be found online at . A copy of the catalogs presented in this work (Version 3.2) is available to download at Zenodo doi: 10.5281/zenodo.7448504 . 
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  6. Abstract

    We present kinematics of six local extremely metal-poor galaxies (EMPGs) with low metallicities (0.016–0.098Z) and low stellar masses (104.7–107.6M). Taking deep medium/high-resolution (R∼ 7500) integral-field spectra with 8.2 m Subaru, we resolve the small inner velocity gradients and dispersions of the EMPGs with Hαemission. Carefully masking out substructures originating by inflow and/or outflow, we fit three-dimensional disk models to the observed Hαflux, velocity, and velocity dispersion maps. All the EMPGs show rotational velocities (vrot) of 5–23 km s−1smaller than the velocity dispersions (σ0) of 17–31 km s−1, indicating dispersion-dominated (vrot/σ0= 0.29–0.80 < 1) systems affected by inflow and/or outflow. Except for two EMPGs with large uncertainties, we find that the EMPGs have very large gas-mass fractions offgas≃ 0.9–1.0. Comparing our results with other Hαkinematics studies, we find thatvrot/σ0decreases andfgasincreases with decreasing metallicity, decreasing stellar mass, and increasing specific star formation rate. We also find that simulated high-z(z∼ 7) forming galaxies have gas fractions and dynamics similar to the observed EMPGs. Our EMPG observations and the simulations suggest that primordial galaxies are gas-rich dispersion-dominated systems, which would be identified by the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope observations atz∼ 7.

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  7. Abstract We present Ly α and ultraviolet (UV)-continuum luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 2.0–3.5 determined by the untargeted optical spectroscopic survey of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We combine deep Subaru imaging with HETDEX spectra resulting in 11.4 deg 2 of fiber spectra sky coverage, obtaining 18,320 galaxies spectroscopically identified with Ly α emission, 2126 of which host type 1 AGNs showing broad (FWHM > 1000 km s −1 ) Ly α emission lines. We derive the Ly α (UV) LF over 2 orders of magnitude covering bright galaxies and AGNs in log L Ly α / [ erg s − 1 ] = 43.3 – 45.5 (−27 < M UV < −20) by the 1/ V max estimator. Our results reveal that the bright-end hump of the Ly α LF is composed of type 1 AGNs. In conjunction with previous spectroscopic results at the faint end, we measure a slope of the best-fit Schechter function to be α Sch = − 1.70 − 0.14 + 0.13 , which indicates that α Sch steepens from z = 2–3 toward high redshift. Our UV LF agrees well with previous AGN UV LFs and extends to faint-AGN and bright-galaxy regimes. The number fraction of Ly α -emitting objects ( X LAE ) increases from M UV * ∼ − 21 to bright magnitude due to the contribution of type 1 AGNs, while previous studies claim that X Ly α decreases from faint magnitudes to M UV * , suggesting a valley in the X Ly α –magnitude relation at M UV * . Comparing our UV LF of type 1 AGNs at z = 2–3 with those at z = 0, we find that the number density of faint ( M UV > −21) type 1 AGNs increases from z ∼ 2 to 0, as opposed to the evolution of bright ( M UV < −21) type 1 AGNs, suggesting AGN downsizing in the rest-frame UV luminosity. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Abstract

    We present the median-stacked Lyman-α (Lyα) surface brightness profiles of 968 spectroscopically selected Lyαemitting galaxies (LAEs) at redshifts 1.9 <z< 3.5 in the early data of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. The selected LAEs are high-confidence Lyαdetections with high signal-to-noise ratios observed with good seeing conditions (point-spread function FWHM <1.″4), excluding active galactic nuclei. The Lyαluminosities of the LAEs are 1042.4–1043erg s−1. We detect faint emission in the median-stacked radial profiles at the level of(3.6±1.3)×1020ergs1cm2arcsec2from the surrounding Lyαhalos out tor≃ 160 kpc (physical). The shape of the median-stacked radial profile is consistent atr< 80 kpc with that of much fainter LAEs at 3 <z< 4 observed with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), indicating that the median-stacked Lyαprofiles have similar shapes at redshifts 2 <z< 4 and across a factor of 10 in Lyαluminosity. While we agree with the results from the MUSE sample atr< 80 kpc, we extend the profile over a factor of two in radius. Atr> 80 kpc, our profile is flatter than the MUSE model. The measured profile agrees at most radii with that of galaxies in the Byrohl et al. cosmological radiative transfer simulation atz= 3. This suggests that the surface brightness of a Lyαhalo atr≲ 100 kpc is dominated by resonant scattering of Lyαphotons from star-forming regions in the central galaxy, whereas atr> 100 kpc, it is dominated by photons from galaxies in surrounding dark matter halos.

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  10. Abstract The gravitationally lensed star WHL 0137–LS, nicknamed Earendel, was identified with a photometric redshift z phot = 6.2 ± 0.1 based on images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. Here we present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera images of Earendel in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0 μ m. In these higher-resolution images, Earendel remains a single unresolved point source on the lensing critical curve, increasing the lower limit on the lensing magnification to μ > 4000 and restricting the source plane radius further to r < 0.02 pc, or ∼4000 au. These new observations strengthen the conclusion that Earendel is best explained by an individual star or multiple star system and support the previous photometric redshift estimate. Fitting grids of stellar spectra to our photometry yields a stellar temperature of T eff ≃ 13,000–16,000 K, assuming the light is dominated by a single star. The delensed bolometric luminosity in this case ranges from log ( L ) = 5.8 to 6.6 L ⊙ , which is in the range where one expects luminous blue variable stars. Follow-up observations, including JWST NIRSpec scheduled for late 2022, are needed to further unravel the nature of this object, which presents a unique opportunity to study massive stars in the first billion years of the universe. 
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