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  1. Abstract We present Ly α and ultraviolet (UV)-continuum luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z = 2.0–3.5 determined by the untargeted optical spectroscopic survey of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We combine deep Subaru imaging with HETDEX spectra resulting in 11.4 deg 2 of fiber spectra sky coverage, obtaining 18,320 galaxies spectroscopically identified with Ly α emission, 2126 of which host type 1 AGNs showing broad (FWHM > 1000 km s −1 ) Ly α emission lines. We derive the Ly α (UV) LF over 2 orders of magnitude covering bright galaxies and AGNs in log L Ly α / [ erg s − 1 ] = 43.3 – 45.5 (−27 < M UV < −20) by the 1/ V max estimator. Our results reveal that the bright-end hump of the Ly α LF is composed of type 1 AGNs. In conjunction with previous spectroscopic results at the faint end, we measure a slope of the best-fit Schechter function to be α Sch = − 1.70 − 0.14 + 0.13 , which indicates that α Sch steepens from z = 2–3 toward high redshift. Our UV LF agrees well with previous AGN UVmore »LFs and extends to faint-AGN and bright-galaxy regimes. The number fraction of Ly α -emitting objects ( X LAE ) increases from M UV * ∼ − 21 to bright magnitude due to the contribution of type 1 AGNs, while previous studies claim that X Ly α decreases from faint magnitudes to M UV * , suggesting a valley in the X Ly α –magnitude relation at M UV * . Comparing our UV LF of type 1 AGNs at z = 2–3 with those at z = 0, we find that the number density of faint ( M UV > −21) type 1 AGNs increases from z ∼ 2 to 0, as opposed to the evolution of bright ( M UV < −21) type 1 AGNs, suggesting AGN downsizing in the rest-frame UV luminosity.« less
  2. Abstract

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV; ∼1200–2000 Å) spectra are fundamental to our understanding of star-forming galaxies, providing a unique window on massive stellar populations, chemical evolution, feedback processes, and reionization. The launch of the James Webb Space Telescope will soon usher in a new era, pushing the UV spectroscopic frontier to higher redshifts than ever before; however, its success hinges on a comprehensive understanding of the massive star populations and gas conditions that power the observed UV spectral features. This requires a level of detail that is only possible with a combination of ample wavelength coverage, signal-to-noise, spectral-resolution, and sample diversity that has not yet been achieved by any FUV spectral database. We present the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Legacy Spectroscopic Survey (CLASSY) treasury and its first high-level science product, the CLASSY atlas. CLASSY builds on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive to construct the first high-quality (S/N1500 Å≳ 5/resel), high-resolution (R∼ 15,000) FUV spectral database of 45 nearby (0.002 <z< 0.182) star-forming galaxies. The CLASSY atlas, available to the public via the CLASSY website, is the result of optimally extracting and coadding 170 archival+new spectra from 312 orbits of HST observations. The CLASSY sample covers a broad range of properties including stellarmore »mass (6.2 < logM(M) < 10.1), star formation rate (−2.0 < log SFR (Myr−1) < +1.6), direct gas-phase metallicity (7.0 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.8), ionization (0.5 < O32< 38.0), reddening (0.02 <E(BV) < 0.67), and nebular density (10 <ne(cm−3) < 1120). CLASSY is biased to UV-bright star-forming galaxies, resulting in a sample that is consistent with thez∼ 0 mass–metallicity relationship, but is offset to higher star formation rates by roughly 2 dex, similar toz≳ 2 galaxies. This unique set of properties makes the CLASSY atlas the benchmark training set for star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

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  3. Abstract

    We describe the survey design, calibration, commissioning, and emission-line detection algorithms for the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The goal of HETDEX is to measure the redshifts of over a million Lyαemitting galaxies between 1.88 <z< 3.52, in a 540 deg2area encompassing a comoving volume of 10.9 Gpc3. No preselection of targets is involved; instead the HETDEX measurements are accomplished via a spectroscopic survey using a suite of wide-field integral field units distributed over the focal plane of the telescope. This survey measures the Hubble expansion parameter and angular diameter distance, with a final expected accuracy of better than 1%. We detail the project’s observational strategy, reduction pipeline, source detection, and catalog generation, and present initial results for science verification in the Cosmological Evolution Survey, Extended Groth Strip, and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North fields. We demonstrate that our data reach the required specifications in throughput, astrometric accuracy, flux limit, and object detection, with the end products being a catalog of emission-line sources, their object classifications, and flux-calibrated spectra.

  4. Abstract

    We present new ALMA observations and physical properties of a Lyman break galaxy at z = 7.15. Our target, B14-65666, has a bright ultra-violet (UV) absolute magnitude, MUV ≈ −22.4, and has been spectroscopically identified in Lyα with a small rest-frame equivalent width of ≈4 Å. A previous Hubble Space TElescope (HST) image has shown that the target is composed of two spatially separated clumps in the rest-frame UV. With ALMA, we have newly detected spatially resolved [O iii] 88 μm, [C ii] 158 μm, and their underlying dust continuum emission. In the whole system of B14-65666, the [O iii] and [C ii] lines have consistent redshifts of 7.1520 ± 0.0003, and the [O iii] luminosity, (34.4 ± 4.1) × 108 L⊙, is about three times higher than the [C ii] luminosity, (11.0 ± 1.4) × 108 L⊙. With our two continuum flux densities, the dust temperature is constrained to be Td ≈ 50–60 K under the assumption of a dust emissivity index of βd = 2.0–1.5, leading to a large total infrared luminosity of LTIR ≈ 1 × 1012 L⊙. Owing to our high spatial resolution data, we show that the [O iii] and [C ii] emission can be spatially decomposed into two clumps associated with the two rest-frame UV clumps whose spectra aremore »kinematically separated by ≈200 km s−1. We also find these two clumps have comparable UV, infrared, [O iii], and [C ii] luminosities. Based on these results, we argue that B14-65666 is a starburst galaxy induced by a major merger. The merger interpretation is also supported by the large specific star formation rate (defined as the star formation rate per unit stellar mass), sSFR $= 260^{+119}_{-57}\:$Gyr−1, inferred from our SED fitting. Probably, a strong UV radiation field caused by intense star formation contributes to its high dust temperature and the [O iii]-to-[C ii] luminosity ratio.

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