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  1. Backward reachability analysis is essential to synthesizing controllers that ensure the correctness of closed-loop systems. This paper is concerned with developing scalable algorithms that under-approximate the backward reachable sets, for discrete-time uncertain linear and nonlinear systems. Our algorithm sequentially linearizes the dynamics, and uses constrained zonotopes for set representation and computation. The main technical ingredient of our algorithm is an efficient way to under-approximate the Minkowski difference between a constrained zonotopic minuend and a zonotopic subtrahend, which consists of all possible values of the uncertainties and the linearization error. This Minkowski difference needs to be represented as a constrained zonotope to enable subsequent computation, but, as we show, it is impossible to find a polynomial-size representation for it in polynomial time. Our algorithm finds a polynomial-size under-approximation in polynomial time. We further analyze the conservatism of this under-approximation technique, and show that it is exact under some conditions. Based on the developed Minkowski difference technique, we detail two backward reachable set computation algorithms to control the linearization error and incorporate nonconvex state constraints. Several examples illustrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 26, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  4. Zonotopes are widely used for over-approximating forward reachable sets of uncertain linear systems for verification purposes. In this paper, we use zonotopes to achieve more scalable algorithms that under-approximate backward reachable sets of uncertain linear systems for control design. The main difference is that the backward reachability analysis is a twoplayer game and involves Minkowski difference operations, but zonotopes are not closed under such operations. We underapproximate this Minkowski difference with a zonotope, which can be obtained by solving a linear optimization problem. We further develop an efficient zonotope order reduction technique to bound the complexity of the obtained zonotopic underapproximations. The proposed approach is evaluated against existing approaches using randomly generated instances and illustrated with several examples.
  5. While Markov jump systems (MJSs) are more appropriate than LTI systems in terms of modeling abruptly changing dynamics, MJSs (and other switched systems) may suffer from the model complexity brought by the potentially sheer number of switching modes. Much of the existing work on reducing switched systems focuses on the state space where techniques such as discretization and dimension reduction are performed, yet reducing mode complexity receives few attention. In this work, inspired by clustering techniques from unsupervised learning, we propose a reduction method for MJS such that a mode-reduced MJS can be constructed with guaranteed approximation performance. Furthermore, we show how this reduced MJS can be used in designing controllers for the original MJS to reduce the computation cost while maintaining guaranteed suboptimality. Keywords: Markov Jump Systems, System Reduction, Clustering
  6. Bilinear dynamical systems are ubiquitous in many different domains and they can also be used to approximate more general control-affine systems. This motivates the problem of learning bilinear systems from a single trajectory of the system’s states and inputs. Under a mild marginal meansquare stability assumption, we identify how much data is needed to estimate the unknown bilinear system up to a desired accuracy with high probability. Our sample complexity and statistical error rates are optimal in terms of the trajectory length, the dimensionality of the system and the input size. Our proof technique relies on an application of martingale small-ball condition. This enables us to correctly capture the properties of the problem, specifically our error rates do not deteriorate with increasing instability. Finally, we show that numerical experiments are well-aligned with our theoretical results.
  7. Distribution network safety should not be compromised when distributed energy resources (DERs) provide balancing services to the grid. Often DER coordination is achieved through an aggregator. Thus, it is necessary to develop network-safe coordination schemes between the distribution network operator (i.e., the utility) and the aggregator. In this work, we introduce a framework in which the utility computes and sends a constraint set on the aggregators’ control commands to the DERs. We propose a policy to adjust the charging/discharging power of distributed batteries, which allows them to be incorporated into the framework. Also, we propose a data-driven approach for the utility to construct a constraint set with probabilistic guarantees on network safety. The proposed approach allows the DERs to provide network- safe services without heavy communication requirements or invasion of privacy. Numerical simulations with distributed batteries and thermostatically controlled loads show that the proposed approach achieves the desired level of network safety and outperforms two benchmark algorithms.
  8. We present a method for contraction-based feedback motion planning of locally incrementally exponentially stabilizable systems with unknown dynamics that provides probabilistic safety and reachability guarantees. Given a dynamics dataset, our method learns a deep control-affine approximation of the dynamics. To find a trusted domain where this model can be used for planning, we obtain an estimate of the Lipschitz constant of the model error, which is valid with a given probability, in a region around the training data, providing a local, spatially-varying model error bound. We derive a trajectory tracking error bound for a contraction based controller that is subjected to this model error, and then learn a controller that optimizes this tracking bound. With a given probability, we verify the correctness of the controller and tracking error bound in the trusted domain. We then use the trajectory error bound together with the trusted domain to guide a sampling-based planner to return trajectories that can be robustly tracked in execution. We show results on a 4D car, a 6D quadrotor, and a 22D deformable object manipulation task, showing our method plans safely with learned models of highdimensional underactuated systems, while baselines that plan without considering the tracking error bound ormore »the trusted domain can fail to stabilize the system and become unsafe.« less
  9. AutoRegressive eXogenous (ARX) models form one of the most important model classes in control theory, econometrics, and statistics, but they are yet to be understood in terms of their finite sample identification analysis. The technical challenges come from the strong statistical dependency not only between data samples at different time instances but also between elements within each individual sample. In this work, for ARX models with potentially unknown orders, we study how ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator performs in terms of identifying model parameters from data collected from either a single length-T trajectory or N i.i.d. trajectories. Our main results show that as long as the orders of the model are chosen optimistically, i.e., we are learning an over-parameterized model compared to the ground truth ARX, the OLS will converge with the optimal rate O(1/√T) (or O(1/√N)) to the true (low-order) ARX parameters. This occurs without the aid of any regularization, thus is referred to as self-regularization. Our results imply that the oracle knowledge of the true orders and usage of regularizers are not necessary in learning ARX models — over-parameterization is all you need.