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  1. The increasing viability of wide band gap power semiconductors, widespread use of distributed power generations, and rise in power levels of these applications have increased interest and need for medium voltage converters. Understanding the definitions of insulation coordination and their relationship to applications and methodologies used in the test environment allows system engineers to select the correct insulation materials for the design and to calculate the required distances between the conductive surfaces, accessible parts and ground accurately. Although, design guidelines are well established for low voltage systems, there are some deficiencies in understanding and meeting the insulation coordination requirements in medium voltage, medium frequency applications. In this study, an overview on standards for insulation coordination and safety requirements is presented to guide researchers in the development of medium voltage power electronic converters and systems. In addition, an insulation coordination study is performed as a case study for a medium frequency isolated DC/DC converter that provides conversion from a 13.8kV AC system to a 4.16kV AC system.
  2. With the growth in penetration number and power level of renewable energy resources, the need for a compact and high efficient solid state transformer becomes more important. The aim of this paper is to design a compact solid state transformer for microgrid application. The proposed transformer has four ports integrated on a single common core. Thus, it can integrate different renewable energy resources and energy storage systems. The transformer is operating at 50kHz switching frequency, and each port can handle 25kW rated power. In this paper, the ports are chosen to represent a realistic industrial microgrid model consisting of grid, energy storage system, photovoltaic system, and load. The grid port is designed to operate at 4160V AC, while the other three ports operate at 400V. Moreover, the grid, energy storage, and photovoltaic ports are active ports with dual active bridge topologies, while the load port is a passive port with full bridge rectifier one. In this paper, an extensive and complete design and modeling of the entire solid state transformer is presented. The proposed design is first validated with simulation results, and then the proposed transformer is implemented. Some preliminary experimental tests are also performed and the obtained results aremore »reported.« less
  3. In this study, analysis and control of a highly efficient, high-power full-bridge unidirectional resonant LLC solid-state transformer (SST) are discussed. A combination of pulse frequency modulation and phase-shift modulation is utilized to control this resonant converter for a wide load range. The converter is designed to maintain soft switching by using a resonant circuit to minimize the switching loss of the high-frequency converter. Zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) is achieved for the H-bridge converter. The ZVS boundary for the proposed combined control method is also analyzed in detail. The experimental setup for the suggested configuration was implemented, and the performance of the proposed control scheme and resonant LLC SST have been verified with test results. The proposed combined control scheme improves control performance. The obtained results show that, the proposed system can regulate output voltage and maintain soft switching in a wide range of load. Thus, the efficiency of the system is improved and an efficiency of 97.18% is achieved.
  4. In this paper, a new topology for grid-connected solar PV inverter is proposed. The proposed topology employs an LLC resonant converter with high frequency isolation transformer in the DC-DC stage. The DC-DC converter stage is controlled to generate a rectified sine wave voltage and current at the line frequency. An unfolder inverter interfaces between this DC stage and the grid. Both phase-shift and frequency control methods are used to control the LLC resonant converter. The switching frequency is determined depending on the phase-shift angle to extend the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) region. The transformer leakage and magnetization inductances are also properly designed to provide ZVS for wide operation area. The LLC converter operates in the ZVS region except the narrow band around the zero-crossings of the inverter output current. Since the LLC resonant converter has a high frequency transformer, the line frequency transformer requirement is eliminated, and thus more compact and efficient design is obtained. The proposed topology is validated by the simulation and experimental results.
  5. In this study, design of a 330kW single-phase transformer (corresponding to 1MW three-phase) operating at 50kHz is presented. Possible core materials and their performances are investigated under high switching frequency operation. Core volume, area, configuration, and market availability are studied to achieve the optimal compact and cost-effective transformer model. Next, transformer winding type, size, placement, and cost are analyzed. These steps will result in a complete transformer electromagnetic design and modelling. Afterwards, a 3D transformer model is created and simulated using a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. ANSYS Maxwell-3D is used to simulate the magnetics, electrostatics, and transients of the designed transformer. This model is integrated with a power electronics circuit in ANSYS Simplorer to make a co-simulation for the entire system. Results obtained will include core maximum flux density, core/copper losses, leakage/magnetizing inductances, windings parasitic capacitances, and input/output voltage, current, and power values. Finally, the systems' overall efficiency is calculated and presented.
  6. In this paper, design of a compact high frequency four-port transformer for a Solid-State Transformer (SST) arrangement is presented. Unlike other SSTs, the four-port system integrates three active sources and a load port with galvanic isolation via a single transformer core. In addition to this feature, one of the three source ports is designed to operate at Medium Voltage (MV) 7.2kV for direct connection to 4.16kV AC grid, while other ports nominal voltages are rated at 400V. The transformer is designed to operate at 50kHz and to supply 25kW/port. Thus, the proposed system connects the MV grid, Energy Storage System (ESS), PV, and DC load to each other on a single common transformer core. Based on the system power demand and availability of renewable energy resources, utility and energy storage ports can either supply or draw power, while PV port can only supply power, maintaining the required demand for the load. This work focuses mainly on the High Frequency Transformer (HFT) design. An extensive study is carried out to obtain the optimal, compact, cost effective, and high efficiency model. Modeling, mathematical, and simulation results are derived and presented to demonstrate the viability of this design.
  7. In this study, a four-port solid-state transformer (SST) with decoupled control scheme to control the power flow and the output voltage is proposed. The proposed decoupled control scheme controls all of the four ports' powers independently. In addition, the design of the four-port transformer including core material selection and winding placement is investigated. The designed transformer is modeled in ANSYS-Maxwell and also co-simulated with ANSYS-Simplorer. The operating frequency of the system is designed for 100 kHz; therefore, a very compact size is obtained for the entire multi-port converter. The performance of the proposed system is validated throughout MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experimental studies carried out for a 10kW/port SST prototype. The obtained results show that the four-port SST provides an interface for four-different power supplies or loads. It is seen that the proposed decoupled control scheme can control the output voltage at the desired value and track the reference power signals for each port. It provides as well a good steady state and dynamic performance.