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  1. Smart homes contain diverse sensors and actuators controlled by IoT apps that provide custom automation. Prior works showed that an adversary could exploit physical interaction vulnerabilities among apps and put the users and environment at risk, e.g., to break into a house, an adversary turns on the heater to trigger an app that opens windows when the temperature exceeds a threshold. Currently, the safe behavior of physical interactions relies on either app code analysis or dynamic analysis of device states with manually derived policies by developers. However, existing works fail to achieve sufficient breadth and fidelity to translate the app code into their physical behavior or provide incomplete security policies, causing poor accuracy and false alarms. In this paper, we introduce a new approach, IoTSeer, which efficiently combines app code analysis and dynamic analysis with new security policies to discover physical interaction vulnerabilities. IoTSeer works by first translating sensor events and actuator commands of each app into a physical execution model (PeM) and unifying PeMs to express composite physical execution of apps (CPeM). CPeM allows us to deploy IoTSeer in different smart homes by defining its execution parameters with minimal data collection. IoTSeer supports new security policies with intended/unintended physical channel labels. It then efficiently checks them on the CPeM via falsification, which addresses the undecidability of verification due to the continuous and discrete behavior of IoT devices. We evaluate IoTSeer in an actual house with 14 actuators, six sensors, and 39 apps. IoTSeer discovers 16 unique policy violations, whereas prior works identify only 2 out of 16 with 18 falsely flagged violations. IoTSeer only requires 30 mins of data collection for each actuator to set the CPeM parameters and is adaptive to newly added, removed, and relocated devices. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Audit logs play a crucial role in the security of computer systems and are targeted by the attackers due to their forensic value. Digital signatures are essential tools to ensure the authentication/integrity of logs with public verifiability and nonrepudiation. Especially, forward-secure and aggregate signatures (FAS) offer compromise-resiliency and append-only features such that an active attacker compromising a computer cannot tamper or selectively delete the logs collected before the breach. Despite their high-security, existing FAS schemes can only sign a small pre-defined number (K) of logs, and their key-size/computation overhead grows linearly with K. These limitations prevent a practical adoption of FAS schemes for digital forensics. In this paper, we created new signatures named COmpact and REsilient (CORE) schemes, which are (to the best of our knowledge) the first FAS that can sign (practically) unbounded number of messages with only a sub-linear growth in the keysize/computation overhead. Central to CORE is the creation of a novel K-time signature COREKBase that has a small-constant key generation overhead and public key size. We then develop CORE-MMM that harnesses COREK Base via forward-secure transformations. We showed that CORE-MMM significantly outperforms its alternatives for essential metrics. For instance, CORE-MMM provides more than two and one magnitudes faster key updates and smaller signatures, respectively, with smaller private keys. CORE-MMM also offers extra efficiency when the same messages are signed with evolving keys. We formally prove that CORE schemes are secure. Our analysis indicates that CORE schemes are ideal tools to enhance the trustworthiness of digital forensic applications. 
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  3. Digital signatures are basic cryptographic tools to provide authentication and integrity in the emerging ubiquitous systems in which resource-constrained devices are expected to operate securely and efficiently. However, existing digital signatures might not be fully practical for such resource-constrained devices (e.g., medical implants) that have energy limitations. Some other computationally efficient alternatives (e.g., one-time/multiple-time signatures) may introduce high memory and/or communication overhead due to large private key and signature sizes. In this paper, our contributions are two-fold: First, we develop a new lightweight multiple-time digital signature scheme called Signer Efficient Multiple-time Elliptic Curve Signature (SEMECS), which is suitable for resource-constrained embedded devices. SEMECS achieves optimal signature and private key sizes for an EC-based signature without requiring any EC operation (e.g., EC scalar multiplication or addition) at the signer. We prove SEMECS is secure (in the random oracle model) with a tight security reduction. Second, we fully implemented SEMECS on an 8-bit AVR microprocessor with a comprehensive energy consumption analysis and comparison. Our experiments confirm up to 19× less battery-consumption for SEMECS as compared to its fastest (full-time) counterpart, SchnorrQ, while offering significant performance advantages over its multiple-time counterparts in various fronts. We open-source our implementation for public testing and adoption. 
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  4. Authentication is vital for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications involving sensitive data (e.g., medical and financial systems). Digital signatures offer scalable authentication with non-repudiation and public verifiability, which are necessary for auditing and dispute resolution in such IoT applications. However, digital signatures have been shown to be highly costly for low-end IoT devices, especially when embedded devices (e.g., medical implants) must operate without a battery replacement for a long time. We propose an Energy-aware Signature for Embedded Medical devices (ESEM) that achieves near-optimal signer efficiency. ESEM signature generation does not require any costly operations (e.g., elliptic curve (EC) scalar multiplication/addition), but only a small constant-number of pseudo-random function calls, additions, and a single modular multiplication. ESEM has the smallest signature size among its EC-based counterparts with an identical private key size. We achieve this by eliminating the use of the ephemeral public key (i.e, commitment) in Schnorrtype signatures from the signing via a distributed construction at the verifier without interaction with the signer while permitting a constant-size public key. We proved that ESEM is secure (in random oracle model), and fully implemented it on an 8-bit AVR microcontroller that is commonly used in medical devices. Our experiments showed that ESEM achieves 8.4× higher energy efficiency over its closest counterpart while offering a smaller signature and code size. Hence, ESEM can be suitable for deployment on resource-limited embedded devices in IoT. We 
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  5. Efficient authentication is vital for IoT applications with stringent minimum-delay requirements (e.g., energy delivery systems). This requirement becomes even more crucial when the IoT devices are battery-powered, like small aerial drones, and the efficiency of authentication directly translates to more operation time. Although some fast authentication techniques have been proposed, some of them might not fully meet the needs of the emerging delay-aware IoT. In this paper, we propose a new signature scheme called ARIS that pushes the limits of the existing digital signatures, wherein commodity hardware can verify 83,333 signatures per second. ARIS also enables the fastest signature generation along with the lowest energy consumption and end-to-end delay among its counterparts. These significant computational advantages come with a larger storage requirement, which is a favorable trade-off for some critical delay-aware applications. These desirable features are achieved by harnessing message encoding with cover-free families and a special elliptic curve based one-way function. We prove the security of ARIS under the hardness of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem in the random oracle model. We provide an open-sourced implementation of ARIS on commodity hardware and an 8-bit AVR microcontroller for public testing and verification. 
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  6. Abstract The ability to query and update over encrypted data is an essential feature to enable breach-resilient cyber-infrastructures. Statistical attacks on searchable encryption (SE) have demonstrated the importance of sealing information leaks in access patterns. In response to such attacks, the community has proposed the Oblivious Random Access Machine (ORAM). However, due to the logarithmic communication overhead of ORAM, the composition of ORAM and SE is known to be costly in the conventional client-server model, which poses a critical barrier toward its practical adaptations. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-supported privacy-enhancing platform called Practical Oblivious Search and Update Platform (POSUP), which enables oblivious keyword search and update operations on large datasets with high efficiency. We harness Intel SGX to realize efficient oblivious data structures for oblivious search/update purposes. We implemented POSUP and evaluated its performance on a Wikipedia dataset containing ≥2 29 keyword-file pairs. Our implementation is highly efficient, taking only 1 ms to access a 3 KB block with Circuit-ORAM. Our experiments have shown that POSUP offers up to 70× less end-to-end delay with 100× reduced network bandwidth consumption compared with the traditional ORAM-SE composition without secure hardware. POSUP is also at least 4.5× faster for up to 99.5% of keywords that can be searched compared with state-of-the-art Intel SGX-assisted search platforms. 
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  7. Public key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) aims in mitigating the impacts of data privacy versus utilization dilemma by allowing any user in the system to send encrypted files to the server to be searched by a receiver. The receiver can retrieve the encrypted files containing specific keywords by providing the corresponding trapdoors of these keywords to the server. Despite their merits, the existing PEKS schemes introduce a high end-to-end delay that may hinder their adoption in practice. Moreover, they do not scale well for large security parameters and provide no post-quantum security promises. In this paper, we propose novel lattice-based PEKS schemes that offer a high computational efficiency along with better security assurances than that of the existing alternatives. Specifically, our NTRU-PEKS scheme achieves 18 times lower end-to-end delay than the most efficient pairing-based alternatives. Our LWE-PEKS offers provable security in the standard model with a reduction to the worst-case lattice problems. We fully implemented our NTRU-PEKS scheme and benchmarked its performance as deployed on Amazon Web Services cloud infrastructures. 
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