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  1. Abstract

    The nearby LHS 1678 (TOI-696) system contains two confirmed planets and a wide-orbit, likely brown-dwarf companion, which orbit an M2 dwarf with a unique evolutionary history. The host star occupies a narrow “gap” in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram lower main sequence, associated with the M dwarf fully convective boundary and long-term luminosity fluctuations. This system is one of only about a dozen M dwarf multiplanet systems to date that hosts an ultra-short-period planet (USP). Here we validate and characterize a third planet in the LHS 1678 system using TESS Cycle 1 and 3 data and a new ensemble of ground-based light curves. LHS 1678 d is a 0.98 ± 0.07Rplanet in a 4.97 day orbit, with an insolation flux of9.10.8+0.9S. These properties place it near 4:3 mean motion resonance with LHS 1678 c and in company with LHS 1678 c in the Venus zone. LHS 1678 c and d are also twins in size and predicted mass, making them a powerful duo for comparative exoplanet studies. LHS 1678 d joins its siblings as another compelling candidate for atmospheric measurements with the JWST and mass measurements using high-precision radial velocity techniques. Additionally, USP LHS 1678 b breaks the “peas-in-a-pod” trend in this system although additional planets could fill in the “pod” beyond its orbit. LHS 1678's unique combination of system properties and their relative rarity among the ubiquity of compact multiplanet systems around M dwarfs makes the system a valuable benchmark for testing theories of planet formation and evolution.

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    We present the confirmation of a hot super-Neptune with an exterior Neptune companion orbiting a bright (V  = 10.1 mag) F-dwarf identified by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). The two planets, observed in sectors 45, 46, and 48 of the TESS extended mission, are $4.74_{-0.14}^{+0.16}$ and $3.86_{-0.16}^{+0.17}$ R⊕ with $5.4588385_{-0.0000072}^{+0.0000070}$ and $17.8999_{-0.0013}^{+0.0018}$ d orbital periods, respectively. We also obtained precise space-based photometric follow-up of the system with ESA’s CHaracterising ExOplanets Satellite to constrain the radius and ephemeris of TOI-5126 b. TOI-5126 b is located in the ‘hot Neptune Desert’ and is an ideal candidate for follow-up transmission spectroscopy due to its high-predicted equilibrium temperature (Teq = ${1442}_{-40}^{+46}$ K) implying a cloud-free atmosphere. TOI-5126 c is a warm Neptune (Teq = $971_{-27}^{+31}$ K) also suitable for follow-up. Tentative transit timing variations have also been identified in analysis, suggesting the presence of at least one additional planet, however this signal may be caused by spot-crossing events, necessitating further precise photometric follow-up to confirm these signals.

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  3. Abstract

    We present a radial velocity (RV) analysis of TOI-1136, a bright Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) system with six confirmed transiting planets, and a seventh single-transiting planet candidate. All planets in the system are amenable to transmission spectroscopy, making TOI-1136 one of the best targets for intra-system comparison of exoplanet atmospheres. TOI-1136 is young (∼700 Myr), and the system exhibits transit timing variations (TTVs). The youth of the system contributes to high stellar variability on the order of 50 m s−1, much larger than the likely RV amplitude of any of the transiting exoplanets. Utilizing 359 High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer and Automated Planet Finder RVs collected as part of the TESS-Keck Survey, and 51 High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planetary Searcher North RVs, we experiment with a joint TTV-RV fit. With seven possible transiting planets, TTVs, more than 400 RVs, and a stellar activity model, we posit that we may be presenting the most complex mass recovery of an exoplanet system in the literature to date. By combining TTVs and RVs, we minimized Gaussian process overfitting and retrieved new masses for this system: (mb−g=3.500.7+0.8,6.321.3+1.1,8.351.6+1.8,6.071.01+1.09,9.73.7+3.9,5.63.2+4.1M). We are unable to significantly detect the mass of the seventh planet candidate in the RVs, but we are able to loosely constrain a possible orbital period near 80 days. Future TESS observations might confirm the existence of a seventh planet in the system, better constrain the masses and orbital properties of the known exoplanets, and generally shine light on this scientifically interesting system.

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  4. Abstract

    Sub-Neptunes with radii of 2–3Rare intermediate in size between rocky planets and Neptune-sized planets. The orbital properties and bulk compositions of transiting sub-Neptunes provide clues to the formation and evolution of close-in small planets. In this paper, we present the discovery and follow-up of four sub-Neptunes orbiting M dwarfs (TOI-782, TOI-1448, TOI-2120, and TOI-2406), three of which were newly validated by ground-based follow-up observations and statistical analyses. TOI-782 b, TOI-1448 b, TOI-2120 b, and TOI-2406 b have radii ofRp=2.7400.079+0.082R,2.7690.068+0.073R, 2.120 ± 0.067R, and2.8300.066+0.068Rand orbital periods ofP= 8.02, 8.11, 5.80, and 3.08 days, respectively. Doppler monitoring with the Subaru/InfraRed Doppler instrument led to 2σupper limits on the masses of <19.1M, <19.5M, <6.8M, and <15.6Mfor TOI-782 b, TOI-1448 b, TOI-2120 b, and TOI-2406 b, respectively. The mass–radius relationship of these four sub-Neptunes testifies to the existence of volatile material in their interiors. These four sub-Neptunes, which are located above the so-called “radius valley,” are likely to retain a significant atmosphere and/or an icy mantle on the core, such as a water world. We find that at least three of the four sub-Neptunes (TOI-782 b, TOI-2120 b, and TOI-2406 b), orbiting M dwarfs older than 1 Gyr, are likely to have eccentricities ofe∼ 0.2–0.3. The fact that tidal circularization of their orbits is not achieved over 1 Gyr suggests inefficient tidal dissipation in their interiors.

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  5. We report the confirmation and characterisation of TOI-1820 b, TOI-2025 b, and TOI-2158 b, three Jupiter-sized planets on short-period orbits around G-type stars detected by TESS. Through our ground-based efforts using the FIES and Tull spectrographs, we have confirmed these planets and characterised their orbits, and find periods of around 4.9 d, 8.9 d, and 8.6 d for TOI-1820 b, TOI-2025 b, and TOI-2158 b, respectively. The sizes of the planets range from 0.96 to 1.14 Jupiter radii, and their masses are in the range from 0.8 to 4.4 Jupiter masses. For two of the systems, namely TOI-2025 and TOI-2158, we see a long-term trend in the radial velocities, indicating the presence of an outer companion in each of the two systems. For TOI-2025 we furthermore find the star to be well aligned with the orbit, with a projected obliquity of 9 −31 +33 °. As these planets are all found in relatively bright systems ( V ~ 10.9–11.6 mag), they are well suited for further studies, which could help shed light on the formation and migration of hot and warm Jupiters. 
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  6. Abstract

    Photochemistry is a fundamental process of planetary atmospheres that regulates the atmospheric composition and stability1. However, no unambiguous photochemical products have been detected in exoplanet atmospheres so far. Recent observations from the JWST Transiting Exoplanet Community Early Release Science Program2,3found a spectral absorption feature at 4.05 μm arising from sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the atmosphere of WASP-39b. WASP-39b is a 1.27-Jupiter-radii, Saturn-mass (0.28 MJ) gas giant exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star with an equilibrium temperature of around 1,100 K (ref. 4). The most plausible way of generating SO2in such an atmosphere is through photochemical processes5,6. Here we show that the SO2distribution computed by a suite of photochemical models robustly explains the 4.05-μm spectral feature identified by JWST transmission observations7with NIRSpec PRISM (2.7σ)8and G395H (4.5σ)9. SO2is produced by successive oxidation of sulfur radicals freed when hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is destroyed. The sensitivity of the SO2feature to the enrichment of the atmosphere by heavy elements (metallicity) suggests that it can be used as a tracer of atmospheric properties, with WASP-39b exhibiting an inferred metallicity of about 10× solar. We further point out that SO2also shows observable features at ultraviolet and thermal infrared wavelengths not available from the existing observations.

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    We present the confirmation and characterization of three hot Jupiters, TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, discovered by the TESS space mission. The reported hot Jupiters have orbital periods between 1.4 and 2.05 d. The masses of the three planets are 1.18 ± 0.14 MJ, 3.16 ± 0.12 MJ, and 2.30 ± 0.28 MJ, for TOI-1181b, TOI-1516b, and TOI-2046b, respectively. The stellar host of TOI-1181b is a F9IV star, whereas TOI-1516b and TOI-2046b orbit F main sequence host stars. The ages of the first two systems are in the range of 2–5 Gyrs. However, TOI-2046 is among the few youngest known planetary systems hosting a hot Jupiter, with an age estimate of 100–400 Myrs. The main instruments used for the radial velocity follow-up of these three planets are located at Ondřejov, Tautenburg, and McDonald Observatory, and all three are mounted on 2–3 m aperture telescopes, demonstrating that mid-aperture telescope networks can play a substantial role in the follow-up of gas giants discovered by TESS and in the future by PLATO.

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  8. Abstract

    We report the discovery of two transiting planets around the bright (V= 9.9 mag) main-sequence F7 star TOI-1670 by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. TOI-1670 b is a sub-Neptune (Rb=2.060.15+0.19R) on a 10.9 day orbit, and TOI-1670 c is a warm Jupiter (Rc=0.9870.025+0.025RJup) on a 40.7 day orbit. Using radial velocity observations gathered with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith telescope and HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we find a planet mass ofMc=0.630.08+0.09MJupfor the outer warm Jupiter, implying a mean density ofρc=0.810.11+0.13g cm−3. The inner sub-Neptune is undetected in our radial velocity data (Mb< 0.13MJupat the 99% confidence level). Multiplanet systems like TOI-1670 hosting an outer warm Jupiter on a nearly circular orbit (ec=0.090.04+0.05) and one or more inner coplanar planets are more consistent with “gentle” formation mechanisms such as disk migration or in situ formation rather than high-eccentricity migration. Of the 11 known systems with a warm Jupiter and a smaller inner companion, eight (73%) are near a low-order mean-motion resonance, which can be a signature of migration. TOI-1670 joins two other systems (27% of this subsample) with period commensurabilities greater than 3, a common feature of in situ formation or halted inward migration. TOI-1670 and the handful of similar systems support a diversity of formation pathways for warm Jupiters.

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  9. ABSTRACT We present the discovery and characterization of six short-period, transiting giant planets from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) -- TOI-1811 (TIC 376524552), TOI-2025 (TIC 394050135), TOI-2145 (TIC 88992642), TOI-2152 (TIC 395393265), TOI-2154 (TIC 428787891), and TOI-2497 (TIC 97568467). All six planets orbit bright host stars (8.9 <G < 11.8, 7.7 <K < 10.1). Using a combination of time-series photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations from the TESS Follow-up Observing Program Working Group, we have determined that the planets are Jovian-sized (RP  = 0.99--1.45 RJ), have masses ranging from 0.92 to 5.26 MJ, and orbit F, G, and K stars (4766 ≤ Teff ≤ 7360 K). We detect a significant orbital eccentricity for the three longest-period systems in our sample: TOI-2025 b (P  = 8.872 d, 0.394$^{+0.035}_{-0.038}$), TOI-2145 b (P  = 10.261 d, e  = $0.208^{+0.034}_{-0.047}$), and TOI-2497 b (P  = 10.656 d, e  = $0.195^{+0.043}_{-0.040}$). TOI-2145 b and TOI-2497 b both orbit subgiant host stars (3.8 < log  g <4.0), but these planets show no sign of inflation despite very high levels of irradiation. The lack of inflation may be explained by the high mass of the planets; $5.26^{+0.38}_{-0.37}$ MJ (TOI-2145 b) and 4.82 ± 0.41 MJ (TOI-2497 b). These six new discoveries contribute to the larger community effort to use TESS to create a magnitude-complete, self-consistent sample of giant planets with well-determined parameters for future detailed studies. 
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  10. null (Ed.)