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Creators/Authors contains: "Park, Sang Hyun"

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  1. Abstract

    Surface plasmons, which allow tight confinement of light, suffer from high intrinsic electronic losses. It has been shown that stimulated emission from excited electrons can transfer energy to plasmons and compensate for the high intrinsic losses. To-date, these realizations have relied on introducing an external gain media coupled to the surface plasmon. Here, we propose that plasmons in two-dimensional materials with closely located electron and hole Fermi pockets can be amplified, when an electrical current bias is applied along the displaced electron-hole pockets, without the need for an external gain media. As a prototypical example, we consider WTe2from the family of 1T$${}^{{\prime} }$$-MX2materials, whose electronic structure can be described within a type-II tilted massive Dirac model. We find that the nonlocal plasmonic response experiences prominent gain for experimentally accessible currents on the order of mAμm−1. Furthermore, the group velocity of the plasmon found from the isofrequency curves imply that the amplified plasmons are highly collimated along a direction perpendicular to the Dirac node tilt when the electrical current is applied along it.

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  2. Abstract

    Near-perfect light absorbers (NPLAs), with absorbance,$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A, of at least 99%, have a wide range of applications ranging from energy and sensing devices to stealth technologies and secure communications. Previous work on NPLAs has mainly relied upon plasmonic structures or patterned metasurfaces, which require complex nanolithography, limiting their practical applications, particularly for large-area platforms. Here, we use the exceptional band nesting effect in TMDs, combined with a Salisbury screen geometry, to demonstrate NPLAs using only two or three uniform atomic layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The key innovation in our design, verified using theoretical calculations, is to stack monolayer TMDs in such a way as to minimize their interlayer coupling, thus preserving their strong band nesting properties. We experimentally demonstrate two feasible routes to controlling the interlayer coupling: twisted TMD bi-layers and TMD/buffer layer/TMD tri-layer heterostructures. Using these approaches, we demonstrate room-temperature values of$${{{{{{{\mathcal{A}}}}}}}}$$A=95% atλ=2.8 eV with theoretically predicted values as high as 99%. Moreover, the chemical variety of TMDs allows us to design NPLAs covering the entire visible range, paving the way for efficient atomically-thin optoelectronics.

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  3. Abstract

    Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points (EPs), have been the focus of much attention due to their singular eigenvalue surface structure. Nevertheless, as pertaining to a non-Hermitian metasurface platform, the reduction of an eigenspace dimensionality at the EP has been investigated mostly in a passive repetitive manner. Here, we propose an electrical and spectral way of resolving chiral EPs and clarifying the consequences of chiral mode collapsing of a non-Hermitian gated graphene metasurface. More specifically, the measured non-Hermitian Jones matrix in parameter space enables the quantification of nonorthogonality of polarisation eigenstates and half-integer topological charges associated with a chiral EP. Interestingly, the output polarisation state can be made orthogonal to the coalesced polarisation eigenstate of the metasurface, revealing the missing dimension at the chiral EP. In addition, the maximal nonorthogonality at the chiral EP leads to a blocking of one of the cross-polarised transmission pathways and, consequently, the observation of enhanced asymmetric polarisation conversion. We anticipate that electrically controllable non-Hermitian metasurface platforms can serve as an interesting framework for the investigation of rich non-Hermitian polarisation dynamics around chiral EPs.

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