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  1. Abstract

    We report CO(5 → 4) and CO(6 → 5) line observations in the dusty starbursting galaxy CRLE (z= 5.667) and the main-sequence (MS) galaxy HZ10 (z= 5.654) with the Northern Extended Millimeter Array. CRLE is the most luminousz> 5 starburst in the COSMOS field and HZ10 is the most gas-rich “normal” galaxy currently known atz> 5. We find line luminosities for CO(5 → 4) and CO(6 → 5) of (4.9 ± 0.5) and (3.8 ± 0.4) × 1010K km s−1pc2for CRLE and upper limits of < 0.76 and < 0.60 × 1010K km s−1pc2for HZ10, respectively. The CO excitation of CRLE appears comparable to otherz> 5 dusty star-forming galaxies. For HZ10, these line luminosity limits provide the first significant constraints of this kind for an MS galaxy atz> 5. We find the upper limit ofL54/L21in HZ10 could be similar to the average value for MS galaxies aroundz≈ 1.5, suggesting that MS galaxies with comparable gas excitation may already have existed one billion years after the Big Bang. For CRLE we determine the most likely values for the H2density, kinetic temperature, and dust temperature based on excitation modeling of the CO line ladder. Wemore »also derive a total gas mass of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 1010M. Our findings provide some of the currently most detailed constraints on the gas excitation that sets the conditions for star formation in a galaxy protocluster environment atz> 5.

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  2. Abstract Radio free–free emission is considered to be one of the most reliable tracers of star formation in galaxies. However, as it constitutes the faintest part of the radio spectrum—being roughly an order of magnitude less luminous than radio synchrotron emission at the GHz frequencies typically targeted in radio surveys—the usage of free–free emission as a star formation rate tracer has mostly remained limited to the local universe. Here, we perform a multifrequency radio stacking analysis using deep Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations at 1.4, 3, 5, 10, and 34 GHz in the COSMOS and GOODS-North fields to probe free–free emission in typical galaxies at the peak of cosmic star formation. We find that z ∼ 0.5–3 star-forming galaxies exhibit radio emission at rest-frame frequencies of ∼65–90 GHz that is ∼1.5–2 times fainter than would be expected from a simple combination of free–free and synchrotron emission, as in the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. We interpret this as a deficit in high-frequency synchrotron emission, while the level of free–free emission is as expected from M82. We additionally provide the first constraints on the cosmic star formation history using free–free emission at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 3, which are inmore »good agreement with more established tracers at high redshift. In the future, deep multifrequency radio surveys will be crucial in order to accurately determine the shape of the radio spectrum of faint star-forming galaxies, and to further establish radio free–free emission as a tracer of high-redshift star formation.« less
  3. ABSTRACT The infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of main-sequence galaxies in the early Universe (z > 4) is currently unconstrained as IR continuum observations are time-consuming and not feasible for large samples. We present Atacama Large Millimetre Array Band 8 observations of four main-sequence galaxies at z ∼ 5.5 to study their IR SED shape in detail. Our continuum data (rest-frame 110 $\rm \mu m$, close to the peak of IR emission) allows us to constrain luminosity-weighted dust temperatures and total IR luminosities. With data at longer wavelengths, we measure for the first time the emissivity index at these redshifts to provide more robust estimates of molecular gas masses based on dust continuum. The Band 8 observations of three out of four galaxies can only be reconciled with optically thin emission redward of rest-frame $100\, {\rm \mu m}$. The derived dust peak temperatures at z ∼ 5.5 ($30\!-\!43\, {\rm K}$) are elevated compared to average local galaxies, however, $\sim 10\, {\rm K}$ below what would be predicted from an extrapolation of the trend at z < 4. This behaviour can be explained by decreasing dust abundance (or density) towards high redshifts, which would cause the IR SED at the peakmore »to be more optically thin, making hot dust more visible to the external observer. From the $850{\hbox{-}}{\rm \mu m}$ dust continuum, we derive molecular gas masses between 1010 and $10^{11}\, {\rm M_{\odot }}$ and gas fractions (gas over total mass) of $30\!-\!80{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ (gas depletion times of $100\!-\!220\, {\rm Myr}$). All in all, our results provide a first measured benchmark SED to interpret future millimetre observations of normal, main-sequence galaxies in the early Universe.« less
  4. We report the serendipitous discovery of a dusty, starbursting galaxy at z=5.667 (called CRLE hereafter), in close physical association to the "normal" Main Sequence galaxy HZ10 at z=5.654. CRLE was identified by detection of [CII], [NII] and CO(2-1) line emission, making it the highest redshift, most luminous starburst in the COSMOS field. This massive, dusty galaxy appears to be forming stars at a rate of at least 1500$\,M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ in a compact region only ~3 kpc in diameter. The dynamical and dust emission properties of CRLE suggest an ongoing merger driving the starburst, in a potentially intermediate stage relative to other known dusty galaxies at the same epoch. The ratio of [CII] to [NII] may suggest that an important contribution to the [CII] emission comes from a diffuse ionized gas component, which could be more extended than the dense, starbursting gas. CRLE appears to be located in a significant galaxy overdensity at the same redshift, potentially associated with a large scale cosmic structure recently identified in a Lyman Alpha Emitter survey. This overdensity suggests that CRLE and HZ10 reside in a protocluster environment, offering the tantalizing opportunity to study the effect of a massive starburst on protocluster star formation. Ourmore »findings support the interpretation that a significant fraction of the earliest galaxy formation may occur from the inside-out, within the central regions of the most massive halos, while rapidly evolving into the massive galaxy clusters observed in the local Universe.« less