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  1. Abstract Extensive expansion in irrigated agriculture has taken place over the last half century. Due to increased irrigation and resultant land-use–land-cover change, the central United States has seen a decrease in temperature and changes in precipitation during the second half of the twentieth century. To investigate the impacts of widespread commencement of irrigation at the beginning of the growing season and continued irrigation throughout the summer on local and regional weather, the Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX) was conducted in the spring and summer of 2018 in southeastern Nebraska. GRAINEX consisted of two 15-day intensive observation periods. Observational platforms frommore »multiple agencies and universities were deployed to investigate the role of irrigation in surface moisture content, heat fluxes, diurnal boundary layer evolution, and local precipitation. This article provides an overview of the data collected and an analysis of the role of irrigation in land–atmosphere interactions on time scales from the seasonal to the diurnal. The analysis shows that a clear irrigation signal was apparent during the peak growing season in mid-July. This paper shows the strong impact of irrigation on surface fluxes, near-surface temperature and humidity, and boundary layer growth and decay.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  2. ABSTRACT Active M dwarfs are known to produce bursty radio emission, and multiwavelength studies have shown that solar-like magnetic activity occurs in these stars. However, coherent bursts from active M dwarfs have often been difficult to interpret in the solar activity paradigm. We present Australian Square Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) observations of UV Ceti at a central frequency of 888 MHz. We detect several periodic, coherent pulses occurring over a time-scale consistent with the rotational period of UV Ceti. The properties of the pulsed emission show that they originate from the electron cyclotron maser instability, in a cavity at least 7 orders of magnitudemore »less dense than the mean coronal density at the estimated source altitude. These results confirm that auroral activity can occur in active M dwarfs, suggesting that these stars mark the beginning of the transition from solar-like to auroral magnetospheric behaviour. These results demonstrate the capabilities of ASKAP for detecting polarized, coherent bursts from active stars and other systems.« less
  3. Present-day galaxies are surrounded by cool and enriched halo gas extending for hundreds of kiloparsecs. This halo gas is thought to be the dominant reservoir of material available to fuel future star formation, but direct constraints on its mass and physical properties have been difficult to obtain. We report the detection of a fast radio burst (FRB 181112), localized with arcsecond precision, that passes through the halo of a foreground galaxy. Analysis of the burst shows that the halo gas has low net magnetization and turbulence. Our results imply predominantly diffuse gas in massive galactic halos, even those hosting activemore »supermassive black holes, contrary to some previous results.« less