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  1. ABSTRACT

    We measure star-spot filling fractions for 240 stars in the Pleiades and M67 open star clusters using APOGEE high-resolution H-band spectra. For this work, we developed a modified spectroscopic pipeline which solves for star-spot filling fraction and star-spot temperature contrast. We exclude binary stars, finding that the large majority of binaries in these clusters (80 per cent) can be identified from Gaia DR3 and APOGEE criteria – important for field star applications. Our data agree well with independent activity proxies, indicating that this technique recovers real star-spot signals. In the Pleiades, filling fractions saturate at a mean level of 0.248 ± 0.005 for active stars with a decline at slower rotation; we present fitting functions as a function of Rossby number. In M67, we recover low mean filling fractions of 0.030 ± 0.008 and 0.003 ± 0.002 for main sequence GK stars and evolved red giants, respectively, confirming that the technique does not produce spurious spot signals in inactive stars. Star-spots also modify the derived spectroscopic effective temperatures and convective overturn time-scales. Effective temperatures for active stars are offset from inactive ones by −109 ± 11 K, in agreement with the Pecaut & Mamajek empirical scale. Star-spot filling fractions at the level measured in active stars changes their inferred overturn time-scale,more »which biases the derived threshold for saturation. Finally, we identify a population of stars statistically discrepant from mean activity–Rossby relations and present evidence that these are genuine departures from a Rossby scaling. Our technique is applicable to the full APOGEE catalogue, with broad applications to stellar, galactic, and exoplanetary astrophysics.

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  2. Abstract Known sources of lithium (Li) in the universe include the Big Bang, novae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and cosmic-ray spallation. During their longer-lived evolutionary phases, stars are not expected to add to the Li budget of the Galaxy, but to largely deplete it. In this context, recent analyses of Li data from GALAH and LAMOST for field red clump (RC) stars have concluded that there is the need for a new production channel of Li, ubiquitous among low-mass stars, and that would be triggered on the upper red giant branch (RGB) or at helium ignition. This is distinct from the Li-rich giant problem and reflects bulk RC star properties. We provide an analysis of the GALAH Li data that accounts for the distribution of progenitor masses of field RC stars observed today. Such progenitors are different than today’s field RGB stars. Using standard post-main-sequence stellar evolution, we show that the distribution of Li among field RC giants as observed by GALAH is consistent with standard model predictions, and does not require new Li production mechanisms. Our model predicts a large fraction of very low Li abundances from low-mass progenitors, with higher abundances from higher mass ones. Moreover, there shouldmore »be a large number of upper limits for RC giants, and higher abundances should correspond to higher masses. The most recent GALAH data indeed confirm the presence of large numbers of upper limits, and a much lower mean Li abundance in RC stars, in concordance with our interpretation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Individual chemical abundances for 14 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni) are derived for a sample of M dwarfs using high-resolution, near-infrared H -band spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The quantitative analysis included synthetic spectra computed with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models using the APOGEE Data Release 17 line list to determine chemical abundances. The sample consists of 11 M dwarfs in binary systems with warmer FGK dwarf primaries and 10 measured interferometric angular diameters. To minimize atomic diffusion effects, [X/Fe] ratios are used to compare M dwarfs in binary systems and literature results for their warmer primary stars, indicating good agreement (<0.08 dex) for all studied elements. The mean abundance difference in primaries minus this work’s M dwarfs is −0.05 ± 0.03 dex. It indicates that M dwarfs in binary systems are a reliable way to calibrate empirical relationships. A comparison with abundance, effective temperature, and surface gravity results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) Data Release 16 finds a systematic offset of [M/H], T eff , log g = +0.21 dex, −50 K, andmore »0.30 dex, respectively, although ASPCAP [X/Fe] ratios are generally consistent with this study. The metallicities of the M dwarfs cover the range of [Fe/H] = −0.9 to +0.4 and are used to investigate Galactic chemical evolution via trends of [X/Fe] as a function of [Fe/H]. The behavior of the various elemental abundances [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] agrees well with the corresponding trends derived from warmer FGK dwarfs, demonstrating that the APOGEE spectra can be used to examine Galactic chemical evolution using large samples of selected M dwarfs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    We present the third and final data release of the K2 Galactic Archaeology Program (K2 GAP) for Campaigns C1–C8 and C10–C18. We provide asteroseismic radius and mass coefficients,κRandκM, for ∼19,000 red giant stars, which translate directly to radius and mass given a temperature. As such, K2 GAP DR3 represents the largest asteroseismic sample in the literature to date. K2 GAP DR3 stellar parameters are calibrated to be on an absolute parallactic scale based on Gaia DR2, with red giant branch and red clump evolutionary state classifications provided via a machine-learning approach. Combining these stellar parameters with GALAH DR3 spectroscopy, we determine asteroseismic ages with precisions of ∼20%–30% and compare age-abundance relations to Galactic chemical evolution models among both low- and high-αpopulations forα, light, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements. We confirm recent indications in the literature of both increased Ba production at late Galactic times as well as significant contributions tor-process enrichment from prompt sources associated with, e.g., core-collapse supernovae. With an eye toward other Galactic archeology applications, we characterize K2 GAP DR3 uncertainties and completeness using injection tests, suggesting that K2 GAP DR3 is largely unbiased in mass/age, with uncertainties of 2.9% (stat.) ± 0.1% (syst.) and 6.7% (stat.) ±more »0.3% (syst.) inκRandκMfor red giant branch stars and 4.7% (stat.) ± 0.3% (syst.) and 11% (stat.) ± 0.9% (syst.) for red clump stars. We also identify percent-level asteroseismic systematics, which are likely related to the time baseline of the underlying data, and which therefore should be considered in TESS asteroseismic analysis.

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  5. Abstract The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is a dual-hemisphere, near-infrared (NIR), spectroscopic survey with the goal of producing a chemodynamical mapping of the Milky Way. The targeting for APOGEE-2 is complex and has evolved with time. In this paper, we present the updates and additions to the initial targeting strategy for APOGEE-2N presented in Zasowski et al. (2017). These modifications come in two implementation modes: (i) “Ancillary Science Programs” competitively awarded to Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV PIs through proposal calls in 2015 and 2017 for the pursuit of new scientific avenues outside the main survey, and (ii) an effective 1.5 yr expansion of the survey, known as the Bright Time Extension (BTX), made possible through accrued efficiency gains over the first years of the APOGEE-2N project. For the 23 distinct ancillary programs, we provide descriptions of the scientific aims, target selection, and how to identify these targets within the APOGEE-2 sample. The BTX permitted changes to the main survey strategy, the inclusion of new programs in response to scientific discoveries or to exploit major new data sets not available at the outset of the survey design, and expansions of existing programs to enhance their scientificmore »success and reach. After describing the motivations, implementation, and assessment of these programs, we also leave a summary of lessons learned from nearly a decade of APOGEE-1 and APOGEE-2 survey operations. A companion paper, F. Santana et al. (submitted; AAS29036), provides a complementary presentation of targeting modifications relevant to APOGEE-2 operations in the Southern Hemisphere.« less
  6. ABSTRACT

    We measure rotational broadening in spectra taken by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey to characterize the relationship between stellar multiplicity and rotation. We create a sample of 2786 giants and 24 496 dwarfs with stellar parameters and multiple radial velocities from the APOGEE pipeline, projected rotation speeds vsin i determined from our own pipeline, and distances, masses, and ages measured by Sanders & Das. We use the statistical distribution of the maximum shift in the radial velocities, ΔRVmax, as a proxy for the close binary fraction to explore the interplay between stellar evolution, rotation, and multiplicity. Assuming that the minimum orbital period allowed is the critical period for Roche Lobe overflow and rotational synchronization, we calculate theoretical upper limits on expected vsin i and ΔRVmax values. These expectations agree with the positive correlation between the maximum ΔRVmax and vsin i values observed in our sample as a function of log(g). We find that the fast rotators in our sample have a high occurrence of short-period [log(P/d) ≲ 4] companions. We also find that old, rapidly rotating main-sequence stars have larger completeness-corrected close binary fractions than their younger peers. Furthermore, rapidly rotating stars with large ΔRVmax consistently show differences of 1–10 Gyrmore »between the predicted gyrochronological and measured isochronal ages. These results point towards a link between rapid rotation and close binarity through tidal interactions. We conclude that stellar rotation is strongly correlated with stellar multiplicity in the field, and caution should be taken in the application of gyrochronology relations to cool stars.

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