Within the context of fewestswitch surface hopping (FSSH) dynamics, one often wishes to remove the angular component of the derivative coupling between states J and K. In a previous set of papers, Shu et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11, 1135–1140 (2020)] posited one approach for such a removal based on direct projection, while we isolated a second approach by constructing and differentiating a rotationally invariant basis. Unfortunately, neither approach was able to demonstrate a oneelectron operatorÔ whose matrix element JÔK was the angular component of the derivative coupling. Here, we show that a oneelectron operator can, in fact, be constructed efficiently in a semilocal fashion. The present results yield physical insight into designing new surface hopping algorithms and are of immediate use for FSSH calculations.
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Free, publiclyaccessible full text available March 28, 2025

Modern electronic structure theory is built around the Born–Oppenheimer approximation and the construction of an electronic Hamiltonian Ĥel(X) that depends on the nuclear position X (and not the nuclear momentum P). In this article, using the wellknown theory of electron translation (Γ′) and rotational (Γ″) factors to couple electronic transitions to nuclear motion, we construct a practical phasespace electronic Hamiltonian that depends on both nuclear position and momentum, ĤPS(X,P). While classical Born–Oppenheimer dynamics that run along the eigensurfaces of the operator Ĥel(X) can recover many nuclear properties correctly, we present some evidence that motion along the eigensurfaces of ĤPS(X,P) can better capture both nuclear and electronic properties (including the elusive electronic momentum studied by Nafie). Moreover, only the latter (as opposed to the former) conserves the total linear and angular momentum in general.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available March 28, 2025 
We demonstrate that, for systems with spin–orbit coupling and an odd number of electrons, the standard fewest switches surface hopping algorithm does not conserve the total linear or angular momentum. This lack of conservation arises not so much from the hopping direction (which is easily adjusted) but more generally from propagating adiabatic dynamics along surfaces that are not time reversible. We show that one solution to this problem is to run along eigenvalues of phasespace electronic Hamiltonians H(R, P) (i.e., electronic Hamiltonians that depend on both nuclear position and momentum) with an electronic–nuclear coupling Γ · P [see Eq. (25)], and we delineate the conditions that must be satisfied by the operator Γ. The present results should be extremely useful as far as developing new semiclassical approaches that can treat systems where the nuclear, electronic orbital, and electronic spin degrees of freedom altogether are all coupled together, hopefully including systems displaying the chiralinduced spin selectivity effect.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available January 14, 2025 
Total angular momentum conservation in Ehrenfest dynamics with a truncated basis of adiabatic states
We show that standard Ehrenfest dynamics does not conserve linear and angular momentum when using a basis of truncated adiabatic states. However, we also show that previously proposed effective Ehrenfest equations of motion [M. Amano and K. Takatsuka, “Quantum fluctuation of electronic wavepacket dynamics coupled with classical nuclear motions,” J. Chem. Phys. 122, 084113 (2005) and V. Krishna, “Path integral formulation for quantum nonadiabatic dynamics and the mixed quantum classical limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134107 (2007)] involving the nonAbelian Berry force do maintain momentum conservation. As a numerical example, we investigate the Kramers doublet of the methoxy radical using generalized Hartree–Fock with spin–orbit coupling and confirm that angular momentum is conserved with the proper equations of motion. Our work makes clear some of the limitations of the Born–Oppenheimer approximation when using ab initio electronic structure theory to treat systems with unpaired electronic spin degrees of freedom, and we demonstrate that Ehrenfest dynamics can offer much improved, qualitatively correct results.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 7, 2025 
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available December 1, 2024

For a system without spin–orbit coupling, the (i) nuclear plus electronic linear momentum and (ii) nuclear plus orbital electronic angular momentum are good quantum numbers. Thus, when a molecular system undergoes a nonadiabatic transition, there should be no change in the total linear or angular momentum. Now, the standard surface hopping algorithm ignores the electronic momentum and indirectly equates the momentum of the nuclear degrees of freedom to the total momentum. However, even with this simplification, the algorithm still does not conserve either the nuclear linear or the nuclear angular momenta. Here, we show that one way to address these failures is to dress the derivative couplings (i.e., the hopping directions) in two ways: (i) we disallow changes in the nuclear linear momentum by working in a translating basis (which is well known and leads to electron translation factors) and (ii) we disallow changes in the nuclear angular momentum by working in a basis that rotates around the center of mass [which is not wellknown and leads to a novel, rotationally removable component of the derivative coupling that we will call electron rotation factors below, cf. Eq. (96)]. The present findings should be helpful in the short term as far as interpreting surface hopping calculations for singlet systems (without spin) and then developing the new surface hopping algorithm in the long term for systems where one cannot ignore the electronic orbital and/or spin angular momentum.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available September 21, 2024 
This paper concerns the representation of angular momentum operators in the Born–Oppenheimer theory of polyatomic molecules and the various forms of the associated conservation laws. Topics addressed include the question of whether these conservation laws are exactly equivalent or only to some order of the Born–Oppenheimer parameter κ = ( m/ M) 1/4 and what the correlation is between angular momentum quantum numbers in the various representations. These questions are addressed in both problems involving a single potential energy surface and those with multiple, strongly coupled surfaces and in both the electrostatic model and those for which fine structure and electron spin are important. The analysis leads to an examination of the transformation laws under rotations of the electronic Hamiltonian; of the basis states, both adiabatic and diabatic, along with their phase conventions; of the potential energy matrix; and of the derivative couplings. These transformation laws are placed in the geometrical context of the structures in the nuclear configuration space that are induced by rotations, which include the rotational orbits or fibers, the surfaces upon which the orientation of the molecule changes but not its shape, and the section, an initial value surface that cuts transversally through the fibers. Finally, it is suggested that the usual Born–Oppenheimer approximation can be replaced by a dressing transformation, that is, a sequence of unitary transformations that blockdiagonalize the Hamiltonian. When the dressing transformation is carried out, we find that the angular momentum operator does not change. This is a part of a system of exact equivalences among various representations of angular momentum operators in Born–Oppenheimer theory. Our analysis accommodates largeamplitude motions and is not dependent on smallamplitude expansions about an equilibrium position. Our analysis applies to noncollinear configurations of a polyatomic molecule; this covers all but a subset of measure zero (the collinear configurations) in the nuclear configuration space.more » « less

This article concerns the use of parallel transport to create a diabatic basis. The advantages of the paralleltransported basis include the facility with which Taylor series expansions can be carried out in the neighborhood of a point or a manifold such as a seam (the locus of degeneracies of the electronic Hamiltonian), and the close relationship between the derivative couplings and the curvature in this basis. These are important for analytic treatments of the nuclear Schrödinger equation in the neighborhood of degeneracies. The paralleltransported basis bears a close relationship to the singularvalue basis; in this article, both are expanded in power series about a reference point and are shown to agree through second order but not beyond. Taylor series expansions are effected through the projection operator, whose expansion does not involve energy denominators or any type of singularity and in terms of which both the singularvalue basis and the paralleltransported basis can be expressed. The paralleltransported basis is a version of Poincaré gauge, well known in electromagnetism, which provides a relationship between the derivative couplings and the curvature and which, along with a formula due to Mead, affords an efficient method for calculating Taylor series of the basis states and the derivative couplings. The case in which fine structure effects are included in the electronic Hamiltonian is covered.more » « less

A phasespace semiclassical approach for modeling nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics with electronic spinChemical relaxation phenomena, including photochemistry and electron transfer processes, form a vigorous area of research in which nonadiabatic dynamics plays a fundamental role. However, for electronic systems with spin degrees of freedom, there are few if any applicable and practical quasiclassical methods. Here, we show that for nonadiabatic dynamics with two electronic states and a complexvalued Hamiltonian that does not obey timereversal symmetry (as relevant to many coupled nuclearelectronicspin systems), the optimal semiclassical approach is to generalize Tully’s surface hopping dynamics from coordinate space to phase space. In order to generate the relevant phasespace adiabatic surfaces, one isolates a proper set of diabats, applies a phase gauge transformation, and then diagonalizes the total Hamiltonian (which is now parameterized by both R and P). The resulting algorithm is simple and valid in both the adiabatic and nonadiabatic limits, incorporating all Berry curvature effects. Most importantly, the resulting algorithm allows for the study of semiclassical nonadiabatic dynamics in the presence of spin–orbit coupling and/or external magnetic fields. One expects many simulations to follow as far as modeling cuttingedge experiments with entangled nuclear, electronic, and spin degrees of freedom, e.g., experiments displaying chiralinduced spin selectivity.more » « less