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  1. The Wigner's friend paradox concerns one of the most puzzling problems of quantum mechanics: the consistent description of multiple nested observers. Recently, a variation of Wigner's gedankenexperiment, introduced by Frauchiger and Renner, has lead to new debates about the self-consistency of quantum mechanics. At the core of the paradox lies the description of an observer and the object it measures as a closed system obeying the Schrödinger equation. We revisit this assumption to derive a necessary condition on a quantum system to behave as an observer. We then propose a simple single-photon interferometric setup implementing Frauchiger and Renner's scenario, and use the derived condition to shed a new light on the assumptions leading to their paradox. From our description, we argue that the three apparently incompatible properties used to question the consistency of quantum mechanics correspond to two logically distinct contexts: either one assumes that Wigner has full control over his friends' lab, or conversely that some parts of the labs remain unaffected by Wigner's subsequent measurements. The first context may be seen as the quantum erasure of the memory of Wigner's friend. We further show these properties are associated with observables which do not commute, and therefore cannot takemore »well-defined values simultaneously. Consequently, the three contradictory properties never hold simultaneously.« less
  2. Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) represent a promising class of nanomaterials for lasing applications. Currently, one of the key challenges facing the development of high-performance NC optical gain media lies in enhancing the lifetime of biexciton populations. This usually requires the employment of charge-delocalizing particle architectures, such as core/shell NCs, nanorods, and nanoplatelets. Here, we report on a two-dimensional nanoshell quantum dot (QD) morphology that enables a strong delocalization of photoinduced charges, leading to enhanced biexciton lifetimes and low lasing thresholds. A unique combination of a large exciton volume and a smoothed potential gradient across interfaces of the reported CdS bulk /CdSe/CdS shell (core/shell/shell) nanoshell QDs results in strong suppression of Auger processes, which was manifested in this work though the observation of stable amplified stimulated emission (ASE) at low pump fluences. An extensive charge delocalization in nanoshell QDs was confirmed by transient absorption measurements, showing that the presence of a bulk-size core in CdS bulk /CdSe/CdS shell QDs reduces exciton–exciton interactions. Overall, present findings demonstrate unique advantages of the nanoshell QD architecture as a promising optical gain medium in solid-state lighting and lasing applications.