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  1. Seafloor hydrothermalism plays a critical role in fundamental interactions between geochemical and biological processes in the deep ocean. A significant number of hydrothermal vents are hypothesized to exist, but many of these remain undiscovered due in part to the difficulty of detecting hydrothermalism using standard sensors on rosettes towed in the water column or robotic platforms performing surveys. Here, we use in situ methane sensors to complement standard sensing technology for hydrothermalism discovery and compare sensors on a towed rosette and an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) during a 17 km long transect in the Northern Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. This transect spatially intersected with a known hydrothermally active venting site. These data show that methane signalled possible hydrothermal-activity 1.5–3 km laterally (100–150 m vertically) from a known vent. Methane as a signal for hydrothermalism performed similarly to standard turbidity sensors (plume detection 2.2–3.3 km from reference source), and more sensitively and clearly than temperature, salinity, and oxygen instruments which readily respond to physical mixing in background seawater. We additionally introduce change-point detection algorithms—streaming cross-correlation and regime identification—as a means of real-time hydrothermalism discovery and discuss related data supervision technologies that could be used in planning, executing, and monitoring explorative surveys for hydrothermalism. 
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  2. Contemporary approaches to perception, planning, estimation, and control have allowed robots to operate robustly as our remote surrogates in uncertain, unstructured environments. This progress now creates an opportunity for robots to operate not only in isolation, but also with and alongside humans in our complex environments. Realizing this opportunity requires an efficient and flexible medium through which humans can communicate with collaborative robots. Natural language provides one such medium, and through significant progress in statistical methods for natural-language understanding, robots are now able to interpret a diverse array of free-form navigation, manipulation, and mobile-manipulation commands. However, most contemporary approaches require a detailed, prior spatial-semantic map of the robot’s environment that models the space of possible referents of an utterance. Consequently, these methods fail when robots are deployed in new, previously unknown, or partially-observed environments, particularly when mental models of the environment differ between the human operator and the robot. This paper provides a comprehensive description of a novel learning framework that allows field and service robots to interpret and correctly execute natural-language instructions in a priori unknown, unstructured environments. Integral to our approach is its use of language as a “sensor”—inferring spatial, topological, and semantic information implicit in natural-language utterances and then exploiting this information to learn a distribution over a latent environment model. We incorporate this distribution in a probabilistic, language grounding model and infer a distribution over a symbolic representation of the robot’s action space, consistent with the utterance. We use imitation learning to identify a belief-space policy that reasons over the environment and behavior distributions. We evaluate our framework through a variety of different navigation and mobile-manipulation experiments involving an unmanned ground vehicle, a robotic wheelchair, and a mobile manipulator, demonstrating that the algorithm can follow natural-language instructions without prior knowledge of the environment. 
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  3. Unsupervised learning techniques, such as Bayesian topic models, are capable of discovering latent structure directly from raw data. These unsupervised models can endow robots with the ability to learn from their observations without human supervision, and then use the learned models for tasks such as autonomous exploration, adaptive sampling, or surveillance. This paper extends single-robot topic models to the domain of multiple robots. The main difficulty of this extension lies in achieving and maintaining global consensus among the unsupervised models learned locally by each robot. This is especially challenging for multi-robot teams operating in communication-constrained environments, such as marine robots. We present a novel approach for multi-robot distributed learning in which each robot maintains a local topic model to categorize its observations and model parameters are shared to achieve global consensus. We apply a combinatorial optimization procedure that combines local robot topic distributions into a globally consistent model based on topic similarity, which we find mitigates topic drift when compared to a baseline approach that matches topics naively. We evaluate our methods experimentally by demonstrating multi-robot underwater terrain characterization using simulated missions on real seabed imagery. Our proposed method achieves similar model quality under bandwidth-constraints to that achieved by models that continuously communicate, despite requiring less than one percent of the data transmission needed for continuous communication. 
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  4. The goal of this article is to enable robots to perform robust task execution following human instructions in partially observable environments. A robot’s ability to interpret and execute commands is fundamentally tied to its semantic world knowledge. Commonly, robots use exteroceptive sensors, such as cameras or LiDAR, to detect entities in the workspace and infer their visual properties and spatial relationships. However, semantic world properties are often visually imperceptible. We posit the use of non-exteroceptive modalities including physical proprioception, factual descriptions, and domain knowledge as mechanisms for inferring semantic properties of objects. We introduce a probabilistic model that fuses linguistic knowledge with visual and haptic observations into a cumulative belief over latent world attributes to infer the meaning of instructions and execute the instructed tasks in a manner robust to erroneous, noisy, or contradictory evidence. In addition, we provide a method that allows the robot to communicate knowledge dissonance back to the human as a means of correcting errors in the operator’s world model. Finally, we propose an efficient framework that anticipates possible linguistic interactions and infers the associated groundings for the current world state, thereby bootstrapping both language understanding and generation. We present experiments on manipulators for tasks that require inference over partially observed semantic properties, and evaluate our framework’s ability to exploit expressed information and knowledge bases to facilitate convergence, and generate statements to correct declared facts that were observed to be inconsistent with the robot’s estimate of object properties. 
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