skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Sack, Lawren"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Penuelas, Josep (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  4. Understanding how environmental adaptations mediate plant and ecosystem responses becomes increasingly important under accelerating global environmental change. Multi-stemmed trees, for example, differ in form and function from single-stemmed trees and may possess physiological advantages that allow for persistence during stressful climatic events such as extended drought. Following the worst drought in Hawaii in a century, we examined patterns of stem abundance and turnover in a Hawaiian lowland dry forest (LDF) and a montane wet forest (MWF) to investigate how multi-stemmed trees might influence site persistence, and how stem abundance and turnover relate to key functional traits. We found stem abundance and multi-stemmed trees to be an important component for climate resilience within the LDF. The LDF had higher relative abundance of multi-stemmed trees, stem abundance, and mean stem abundance compared to a reference MWF. Within the LDF, multi-stemmed trees had higher relative stem abundance (i.e., percent composition of stems to the total number of stems in the LDF) and higher estimated aboveground carbon than single-stemmed trees. Stem abundance varied among species and tree size classes. Stem turnover (i.e., change in stem abundance between five-year censuses) varied among species and tree size classes and species mean stem turnover was correlated withmore »mean species stem abundance per tree. At the plot level, stem abundance per tree is also a predictor of survival, though mortality did not differ between multiple- and single-stemmed trees. Lastly, species with higher mean stem abundance per tree tended to have traits associated with a higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate, suggesting greater productivity in periods with higher water supply. Identifying the traits that allow species and forest communities to persist in dry environments or respond to disturbance is useful for forecasting ecological climate resilience or potential for restoration in tropical dry forests.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Some lineages radiate spectacularly when colonizing a region, but others do not. Large radiations are often attributed to species’ adaptation into niches, or to other drivers, such as biogeography including dispersal ability and spatial structure of the landscape. Here we aim to disentangle the factors determining radiation size, by modeling simplified scenarios without the complexity of explicit niches. We build a spatially structured neutral model free from niches and incorporating a form of protracted speciation that accounts for gene flow between populations. We find that a wide range of radiation sizes are possible in this model depending on the combination of geographic isolation and species’ dispersal ability. At extremely low rates of dispersal between patches, each patch maintains its own endemic species. Intermediate dispersal rates foster larger radiations as they allow occasional movement between patches whilst sufficiently restricting gene flow to support further speciation in allopatry. As dispersal rates increase further, a critical point is reached at which demographically identical lineages may vary greatly in radiation size due to rare and stochastic dispersal events. At the critical point in dispersal frequency, some lineages remain a single species for a comparatively long time, whilst others with identical characteristics produce the largestmore »radiations of all via a new mechanism for rapid radiation that we term a ‘radiation cascade’. Given a single species covering many patches connected with gene flow, a radiation cascade is triggered when stochastic dispersal is unusually low for a period, leading to an initial speciation event. This speciation means there are fewer individuals per species and thus further reduced gene flow between conspecifics. Reduced gene flow in turn makes it easier for further speciation to occur. During a radiation cascade, dispersal of individuals between patches continues at the same rate as before, but due to the increasing diversity it primarily introduces novel species that will later speciate, rather than adding to gene flow of existing species. Once a radiation cascade begins, it continues rapidly until it is arrested by a new equilibrium between speciation and extinction. We speculate that such radiation cascades may occur more generally and are not only present in neutral models. This process may help to explain rapid radiation, and the extreme radiation sizes of certain lineages with dispersing ancestors. Whilst niches no doubt play a role in community assembly, our findings lead us to question whether diversification and adaptation into niches is sometimes an effect of speciation and rapid radiation, rather than its cause.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 8, 2023