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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Abstract One-dimensional strings of local excitations are a fascinating feature of the physical behavior of strongly correlated topological quantum matter. Here we study strings of local excitations in a classical system of interacting nanomagnets, the Santa Fe Ice geometry of artificial spin ice. We measured the moment configuration of the nanomagnets, both after annealing near the ferromagnetic Curie point and in a thermally dynamic state. While the Santa Fe Ice lattice structure is complex, we demonstrate that its disordered magnetic state is naturally described within a framework of emergent strings. We show experimentally that the string length follows a simplemore »Boltzmann distribution with an energy scale that is associated with the system’s magnetic interactions and is consistent with theoretical predictions. The results demonstrate that string descriptions and associated topological characteristics are not unique to quantum models but can also provide a simplifying description of complex classical systems with non-trivial frustration.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Pure spin currents can be generated via thermal excitations of magnons. These magnon spin currents serve as carriers of information in insulating materials, and controlling them using electrical means may enable energy efficient information processing. Here, we demonstrate electric field control of magnon spin currents in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cr 2 O 3 . We show that the thermally driven magnon spin currents reveal a spin-flop transition in thin-film Cr 2 O 3 . Crucially, this spin-flop can be turned on or off by applying an electric field across the thickness of the film. Using this tunability, we demonstrate electricmore »field–induced switching of the polarization of magnon spin currents by varying only a gate voltage while at a fixed magnetic field. We propose a model considering an electric field–dependent spin-flop transition, arising from a change in sublattice magnetizations via a magnetoelectric coupling. These results provide a different approach toward controlling magnon spin current in antiferromagnets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022