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Creators/Authors contains: "Saha, Krishanu"

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  1. null (Ed.)
    The recent discovery and subsequent development of the CRISPR–Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat–CRISPR-associated protein 9) platform as a precise genome editing tool have transformed biomedicine. As these CRISPR-based tools have matured, multiple stages of the gene editing process and the bioengineering of human cells and tissues have advanced. Here, we highlight recent intersections in the development of biomaterials and genome editing technologies. These intersections include the delivery of macromolecules, where biomaterial platforms have been harnessed to enable nonviral delivery of genome engineering tools to cells and tissues in vivo. Further, engineering native-like biomaterial platforms for cell culture facilitates complex modeling of human development and disease when combined with genome engineering tools. Deeper integration of biomaterial platforms in these fields could play a significant role in enabling new breakthroughs in the application of gene editing for the treatment of human disease. 
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    Abstract Compound heterozygous recessive or polygenic diseases could be addressed through gene correction of multiple alleles. However, targeting of multiple alleles using genome editors could lead to mixed genotypes and adverse events that amplify during tissue morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Cas9-ribonucleoprotein-based genome editors can correct two distinct mutant alleles within a single human cell precisely. Gene-corrected cells in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of Pompe disease expressed the corrected transcript from both corrected alleles, leading to enzymatic cross-correction of diseased cells. Using a quantitative in silico model for the in vivo delivery of genome editors into the developing human infant liver, we identify progenitor targeting, delivery efficiencies, and suppression of imprecise editing outcomes at the on-target site as key design parameters that control the efficacy of various therapeutic strategies. This work establishes that precise gene editing to correct multiple distinct gene variants could be highly efficacious if designed appropriately. 
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  4. Nikolich-Žugich, Janko (Ed.)
    There is a critical need for adjuvants that can safely elicit potent and durable T cell-based immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we report that parenteral vaccination with a carbomer-based adjuvant, Adjuplex (ADJ), stimulated robust CD8 T-cell responses to subunit antigens and afforded effective immunity against respiratory challenge with a virus and a systemic intracellular bacterial infection. Studies to understand the metabolic and molecular basis for ADJ’s effect on antigen cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) revealed several unique and distinctive mechanisms. ADJ-stimulated DCs produced IL-1β and IL-18, suggestive of inflammasome activation, but in vivo activation of CD8 T cells was unaffected in caspase 1-deficient mice. Cross-presentation induced by TLR agonists requires a critical switch to anabolic metabolism, but ADJ enhanced cross presentation without this metabolic switch in DCs. Instead, ADJ induced in DCs, an unique metabolic state, typified by dampened oxidative phosphorylation and basal levels of glycolysis. In the absence of increased glycolytic flux, ADJ modulated multiple steps in the cytosolic pathway of cross-presentation by enabling accumulation of degraded antigen, reducing endosomal acidity and promoting antigen localization to early endosomes. Further, by increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, ADJ promoted antigen escape from endosomes to the cytosol for degradation by proteasomes into peptides for MHC I loading by TAP-dependent pathways. Furthermore, we found that induction of lipid bodies (LBs) and alterations in LB composition mediated by ADJ were also critical for DC cross-presentation. Collectively, our model challenges the prevailing metabolic paradigm by suggesting that DCs can perform effective DC cross-presentation, independent of glycolysis to induce robust T cell-dependent protective immunity to intracellular pathogens. These findings have strong implications in the rational development of safe and effective immune adjuvants to potentiate robust T-cell based immunity. 
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