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  1. Abstract

    In this work, we present classification results on early supernova light curves from SCONE, a photometric classifier that uses convolutional neural networks to categorize supernovae (SNe) by type using light-curve data. SCONE is able to identify SN types from light curves at any stage, from the night of initial alert to the end of their lifetimes. Simulated LSST SNe light curves were truncated at 0, 5, 15, 25, and 50 days after the trigger date and used to train Gaussian processes in wavelength and time space to produce wavelength–time heatmaps. SCONE uses these heatmaps to perform six-way classification between SN types Ia, II, Ibc, Ia-91bg, Iax, and SLSN-I. SCONE is able to perform classification with or without redshift, but we show that incorporating redshift information improves performance at each epoch. SCONE achieved 75% overall accuracy at the date of trigger (60% without redshift), and 89% accuracy 50 days after trigger (82% without redshift). SCONE was also tested on bright subsets of SNe (r< 20 mag) and produced 91% accuracy at the date of trigger (83% without redshift) and 95% five days after trigger (94.7% without redshift). SCONE is the first application of convolutional neural networks to the early-time photometricmore »transient classification problem. All of the data processing and model code developed for this paper can be found in the SCONE software package1

    located at (Qu 2021).

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  2. Abstract We present a search for outer solar system objects in the 6 yr of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The DES covered a contiguous 5000 deg 2 of the southern sky with ≈80,000 3 deg 2 exposures in the grizY filters between 2013 and 2019. This search yielded 812 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), one Centaur and one Oort cloud comet, 458 reported here for the first time. We present methodology that builds upon our previous search on the first 4 yr of data. All images were reprocessed with an optimized detection pipeline that leads to an average completeness gain of 0.47 mag per exposure, as well as improved transient catalog production and algorithms for linkage of detections into orbits. All objects were verified by visual inspection and by the “sub-threshold significance,” the signal-to-noise ratio in the stack of images in which its presence is indicated by the orbit, but no detection was reported. This yields a pure catalog complete to r ≈ 23.8 mag and distances 29 < d < 2500 au. The TNOs have minimum (median) of 7 (12) nights’ detections and arcs of 1.1 (4.2) yr, and will have grizY magnitudes available in a further publication.more »We present software for simulating our observational biases for comparisons of models to our detections. Initial inferences demonstrating the catalog’s statistical power are: the data are inconsistent with the CFEPS-L7 model for the classical Kuiper Belt; the 16 “extreme” TNOs ( a > 150 au, q > 30 au) are consistent with the null hypothesis of azimuthal isotropy; and nonresonant TNOs with q > 38 au, a > 50 au show a significant tendency to be sunward of major mean-motion resonances.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We present an overview of a deep transient survey of the COSMOS field with the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). The survey was performed for the 1.77 deg2 ultra-deep layer and 5.78 deg2 deep layer in the Subaru Strategic Program over six- and four-month periods from 2016 to 2017, respectively. The ultra-deep layer reaches a median depth per epoch of 26.4, 26.3, 26.0, 25.6, and 24.6 mag in g, r, i, z, and y bands, respectively; the deep layer is ∼0.6 mag shallower. In total, 1824 supernova candidates were identified. Based on light-curve fitting and derived light-curve shape parameter, we classified 433 objects as Type Ia supernovae (SNe); among these candidates, 129 objects have spectroscopic or COSMOS2015 photometric redshifts and 58 objects are located at z > 1. Our unique data set doubles the number of Type Ia SNe at z > 1 and enables various time-domain analyses of Type II SNe, high-redshift superluminous SNe, variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.