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  1. null (Ed.)
    Due to the importance of object detection in video analysis and image annotation, it is widely utilized in a number of computer vision tasks such as face recognition, autonomous vehicles, activity recognition, tracking objects and identity verification. Object detection does not only involve classification and identification of objects within images, but also involves localizing and tracing the objects by creating bounding boxes around the objects and labelling them with their respective prediction scores. Here, we leverage and discuss how connected vision systems can be used to embed cameras, image processing, Edge Artificial Intelligence (AI), and data connectivity capabilities for flood label detection. We favored the engineering definition of label detection that a label is a sequence of discrete measurable observations obtained using a capturing device such as web cameras, smart phone, etc. We built a Big Data service of around 1000 images (image annotation service) including the image geolocation information from various flooding events in the Carolinas (USA) with a total of eight different object categories. Our developed platform has several smart AI tools and task configurations that can detect objects’ edges or contours which can be manually adjusted with a threshold setting so as to best segment the image. The tool has the ability to train the dataset and predict the labels for large scale datasets which can be used as an object detector to drastically reduce the amount of time spent per object particularly for real-time image-based flood forecasting. This research is funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF). 
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  2. Floods are among the most destructive natural hazard that affect millions of people across the world leading to severe loss of life and damage to property, critical infrastructure, and agriculture. Internet of Things (IoTs), machine learning (ML), and Big Data are exceptionally valuable tools for collecting the catastrophic readiness and countless actionable data. The aim of this presentation is to introduce Flood Analytics Information System (FAIS) as a data gathering and analytics system. FAIS application is smartly designed to integrate crowd intelligence, ML, and natural language processing of tweets to provide warning with the aim to improve flood situational awareness and risk assessment. FAIS has been Beta tested during major hurricane events in US where successive storms made extensive damage and disruption. The prototype successfully identifies a dynamic set of at-risk locations/communities using the USGS river gauge height readings and geotagged tweets intersected with watershed boundary. The list of prioritized locations can be updated, as the river monitoring system and condition change over time (typically every 15 minutes). The prototype also performs flood frequency analysis (FFA) using various probability distributions with the associated uncertainty estimation to assist engineers in designing safe structures. This presentation will discuss about the FAIS functionalities and real-time implementation of the prototype across south and southeast USA. This research is funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF). 
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  3. With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data infrastructure, crowdsourcing techniques have emerged to facilitate data processing and problem solving particularly for flood emergences purposes. A Flood Analytics Information System (FAIS) has been developed as a Python Web application to gather Big Data from multiple servers and analyze flooding impacts during historical and real-time events. The application is smartly designed to integrate crowd intelligence, machine learning (ML), and natural language processing of tweets to provide flood warning with the aim to improve situational awareness for flood risk management. FAIS, a national scale prototype, combines flood peak rates and river level information with geotagged tweets to identify a dynamic set of at-risk locations to flooding. The prototype was successfully tested in real-time during Hurricane Dorian flooding as well as for historical event (Hurricanes Florence) across the Carolinas, USA where the storm made extensive disruption to infrastructure and communities. 
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  4. Abstract

    A hurricane event can often produce both intense rainfall and a storm tide that can cause a major compound flooding threat to coastlines. This paper examined applications of multivariate copula‐based time series models using data observed during Hurricane Irma (2017) along the coastlines of Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, United States. Multivariate time series models were developed using bivariate copulas wherein storm tide and rainfall data were modeled using LOWESS‐based autoregressive moving average (ARMA).nsamples of observed data were then synthesized using a Monte Carlo approach in which the empirical copula and the parametric estimate of the copula were obtained to approximate two‐sidedp‐values using the Rosenblatt probability integral transform method. Analysis suggested that proper selection of the underlying LOWESS‐based ARMA model was the crucial aspect for modeling compound flooding wherein Archimedean, Elliptical, and Extreme Value copulas all offered consistent flexibility in terms of dependence modeling. As a backdrop to compound flood probabilities, this research also outlined both theoretical and applied frameworks for the calculation of non‐exceedance probabilities in a multidimensional environment using classical isofrequency probability assumptions for the “AND” (a bivariate joint probability) and Survival Kendall definitions. Random realizations from storm copulas combined with multivariate non‐exceedance probability definitions ultimately showed there were periods of temporal yet cyclical high intensities that lasted 1–2 hr. Lastly, a discussion is presented on the broader application of the proposed methodology within the field of engineering design and risk management which may serve as a catalyst for the continued research in compound flooding.

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  5. Successive hurricane events have brought new challenges to human life, critical infrastructure and the environment in the United States. This study introduced Flood Analytics Information System (FAIS) as a national scale data analytics application for real-time flood data collection and analysis. FAIS has been Beta tested across a mixed urban and rural basin in the Carolinas where Hurricane Florence made extensive damages and disruption. Our research aim was to develop and test an integrated solution based on real time Big data for stakeholder map-based dashboard visualizations that can be applicable to other countries and a range of weather-driven emergency situations. The prototype successfully identifies a dynamic set of at-risk locations using web-based river level and flood information. The list of prioritized locations can be updated every 15 minutes, as the environmental information and condition change. FAIS will be extended to collect data from other countries and other kinds of weather-related hazards such as snowstorms and wildfires. 
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