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  1. 4,6-O-Benzylidene acetal protected α-methoxy d-glucose and d-glucosamine are useful building blocks for the syntheses of carbohydrate derivatives and functional molecular assemblies. In this research, we have developed a general method for the preparation of C-3 carbamate derivatives of densely functionalized glucose and glucosamine with isocyanates using organic bases as catalysts. Without a suitable catalyst, the C-3 hydroxy group of the glucosamine derivative could not be converted into the corresponding carbamates when treated with isocyanates. Several organic bases were screened as the catalysts for the reactions, and we discovered that 5.0 mol% of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) was an effective catalyst for the carbamoylation reaction. A library of both alkyl and aryl carbamate derivatives of the two sterically congested carbohydrates have been effectively synthesized using the current method.
  2. Carbohydrate derived low molecular weight organogelators are interesting compounds with many potential applications. Selective functionalization of the different hydroxyl substituents on d -glucose and d -glucosamine resulted in small molecular gelators. Previously we have found that the C-2 acylated derivatives including esters and carbamates of 4,6- O -benzylidene protected glucose and glucosamine derivatives have shown remarkable applications as molecular gelators. In this research, in order to probe the structural influence of sugar derivatives on molecular self-assembly, we introduced acylation functional groups to the 3-hydroxyl group of 4,6- O -benzylidene acetal protected N -acetyl glucosamine derivatives. A library of fourteen ester derivatives was synthesized and characterized. The ester derivatives typically formed gels in pump oil and aqueous mixtures of dimethyl sulfoxide or ethanol. The resulting gels were characterized using optical microscopy, and rheology, etc. All alkyl ester derivatives were gelators for pump oil. A short chain ester derivative was able to form gels in a few different oils and the corresponding oil water mixtures phase selectively. The compound was also used to trap naproxen sodium and formed a stable co-gel. The controlled release of the drug from the gel to the aqueous phase was analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy. These results showmore »that the functionalization at the 3-OH position of the N -acetyl glucosamine derivative is a feasible strategy in designing new classes of organogelators.« less