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  1. Abstract Molecular lines tracing the orbital motion of gas in a well-defined disk are valuable tools for inferring both the properties of the disk and the star it surrounds. Lines that arise only from a disk, and not also from the surrounding molecular cloud core that birthed the star or from the outflow it drives, are rare. Several such emission lines have recently been discovered in one example case, those from NaCl and KCl salt molecules. We studied a sample of 23 candidate high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs) in 17 high-mass star-forming regions to determine how frequently emission from these species is detected. We present five new detections of water, NaCl, KCl, PN, and SiS from the innermost regions around the objects, bringing the total number of known briny disk candidates to nine. Their kinematic structure is generally disk-like, though we are unable to determine whether they arise from a disk or outflow in the sources with new detections. We demonstrate that these species are spatially coincident in a few resolved cases and show that they are generally detected together, suggesting a common origin or excitation mechanism. We also show that several disks around HMYSOs clearly do not exhibit emission in these species. Salty disks are therefore neither particularly rare in high-mass disks, nor are they ubiquitous. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract The mass distribution of dense cores is a potential key to understanding the process of star formation. Applying dendrogram analysis to the CARMA-NRO Orion C 18 O ( J = 1–0) data, we identify 2342 dense cores, about 22% of which have virial ratios smaller than 2 and can be classified as gravitationally bound cores. The derived core mass function (CMF) for bound starless cores that are not associate with protostars has a slope similar to Salpeter’s initial mass function (IMF) for the mass range above 1 M ⊙ , with a peak at ∼0.1 M ⊙ . We divide the cloud into four parts based on decl., OMC-1/2/3, OMC-4/5, L1641N/V380 Ori, and L1641C, and derive the CMFs in these regions. We find that starless cores with masses greater than 10 M ⊙ exist only in OMC-1/2/3, whereas the CMFs in OMC-4/5, L1641N, and L1641C are truncated at around 5–10 M ⊙ . From the number ratio of bound starless cores and Class II objects in each subregion, the lifetime of bound starless cores is estimated to be 5–30 freefall times, consistent with previous studies for other regions. In addition, we discuss core growth by mass accretion from the surrounding cloud material to explain the coincidence of peak masses between IMFs and CMFs. The mass accretion rate required for doubling the core mass within a core lifetime is larger than that of Bondi–Hoyle accretion by a factor of order 2. This implies that more dynamical accretion processes are required to grow cores. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 24, 2024
  3. Abstract One of the most poorly understood aspects of low-mass star formation is how multiple-star systems are formed. Here we present the results of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations toward a forming quadruple protostellar system, G206.93-16.61E2, in the Orion B molecular cloud. ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals four compact objects, of which two are Class I young stellar objects and the other two are likely in prestellar phase. The 1.3 mm continuum emission also shows three asymmetric ribbon-like structures that are connected to the four objects, with lengths ranging from ∼500 to ∼2200 au. By comparing our data with magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we suggest that these ribbons trace accretion flows and also function as gas bridges connecting the member protostars. Additionally, ALMA CO J = 2−1 line emission reveals a complicated molecular outflow associated with G206.93-16.61E2, with arc-like structures suggestive of an outflow cavity viewed pole-on. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract We observed the high-mass protostellar core G335.579–0.272 ALMA1 at ∼200 au (0.″05) resolution with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 226 GHz (with a mass sensitivity of 5 σ = 0.2 M ⊙ at 10 K). We discovered that at least a binary system is forming inside this region, with an additional nearby bow-like structure (≲1000 au) that could add an additional member to the stellar system. These three sources are located at the center of the gravitational potential well of the ALMA1 region and the larger MM1 cluster. The emission from CH 3 OH (and many other tracers) is extended (>1000 au), revealing a common envelope toward the binary system. We use CH 2 CHCN line emission to estimate an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 26° with respect to the line of sight based on geometric assumptions and derive a kinematic mass of the primary source (protostar+disk) of 3.0 M ⊙ within a radius of 230 au. Using SiO emission, we find that the primary source drives the large-scale outflow revealed by previous observations. Precession of the binary system likely produces a change in orientation between the outflow at small scales observed here and large scales observed in previous works. The bow structure may have originated from the entrainment of matter into the envelope due to the widening or precession of the outflow, or, alternatively, an accretion streamer dominated by the gravity of the central sources. An additional third source, forming due to instabilities in the streamer, cannot be ruled out as a temperature gradient is needed to produce the observed absorption spectra. 
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  5. Abstract Star formation primarily occurs in filaments where magnetic fields are expected to be dynamically important. The largest and densest filaments trace the spiral structure within galaxies. Over a dozen of these dense (∼10 4 cm −3 ) and long (>10 pc) filaments have been found within the Milky Way, and they are often referred to as “bones.” Until now, none of these bones has had its magnetic field resolved and mapped in its entirety. We introduce the SOFIA legacy project FIELDMAPS which has begun mapping ∼10 of these Milky Way bones using the HAWC+ instrument at 214 μ m and 18.″2 resolution. Here we present a first result from this survey on the ∼60 pc long bone G47. Contrary to some studies of dense filaments in the Galactic plane, we find that the magnetic field is often not perpendicular to the spine (i.e., the center line of the bone). Fields tend to be perpendicular in the densest areas of active star formation and more parallel or random in other areas. The average field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the Galactic plane or the bone. The magnetic field strengths along the spine typically vary from ∼20 to ∼100 μ G. Magnetic fields tend to be strong enough to suppress collapse along much of the bone, but for areas that are most active in star formation, the fields are notably less able to resist gravitational collapse. 
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