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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. The paradigm of differentiable programming has significantly enhanced the scope of machine learning via the judicious use of gradient-based optimization. However, standard differentiable programming methods (such as autodiff) typically require that the machine learning models be differentiable, limiting their applicability. Our goal in this paper is to use a new, principled approach to extend gradient-based optimization to functions well modeled by splines, which encompass a large family of piecewise polynomial models. We derive the form of the (weak) Jacobian of such functions and show that it exhibits a block-sparse structure that can be computed implicitly and efficiently. Overall, we showmore »that leveraging this redesigned Jacobian in the form of a differentiable" layer''in predictive models leads to improved performance in diverse applications such as image segmentation, 3D point cloud reconstruction, and finite element analysis. We also open-source the code at\url {https://github. com/idealab-isu/DSA}.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Complex analyses involving multiple, dependent random quantities often lead to graphical models—a set of nodes denoting variables of interest, and corresponding edges denoting statistical interactions between nodes. To develop statistical analyses for graphical data, especially towards generative modeling, one needs mathematical representations and metrics for matching and comparing graphs, and subsequent tools, such as geodesics, means, and covariances. This paper utilizes a quotient structure to develop efficient algorithms for computing these quantities, leading to useful statistical tools, including principal component analysis, statistical testing, and modeling. We demonstrate the efficacy of this framework using datasets taken from several problem areas, includingmore »letters, biochemical structures, and social networks.« less
  4. Abstract Factors thought to influence deep cycle turbulence in the equatorial Pacific are examined statistically for their predictive capacity using a 13-year moored record that includes microstructure measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. Wind stress and mean current shear are found to be most predictive of the dissipation rate. Those variables, together with the solar buoyancy flux and the diurnal mixed layer thickness, are combined to make a pair of useful parameterizations. The uncertainty in these predictions is typically 50% greater than the uncertainty in present-day in situ measurements. To illustrate the use of these parameterizations, the recordmore »of deep cycle turbulence, measured directly since 2005, is extended back to 1990 based on historical mooring data. The extended record is used to refine our understanding of the seasonal variation of deep cycle turbulence.« less
  5. This paper covered progress on tackling COVID-19 in India, a country with the second highest number of reported infections and fourth highest number of reported deaths in the world.
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 3, 2023