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    Current observations favour that the massive ultraviolet-bright clumps with a median stellar mass of $\sim 10^7\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$, ubiquitously observed in z ∼ 1–3 galaxies, are star-forming regions formed in situ in galaxies. It has been proposed that they result from gas fragmentation due to gravitational instability of gas-rich, turbulent, and high-redshift discs. We bring support to this scenario by reporting the new discovery of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the strongly lensed, clumpy, main-sequence galaxy, A521-sys1, at z = 1.043. Its CO(4–3) emission was mapped with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) at an angular resolution of 0.19 × 0.16 arcsec2, reading down to 30 pc, thanks to gravitational lensing. We identified 14 GMCs, most being virialized, with $10^{5.9}-10^{7.9}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ masses and a median $800\, {\rm M}_{\odot }~\mathrm{pc}^{-2}$ molecular gas mass surface density, that are, respectively, 100 and 10 times higher than for nearby GMCs. They are also characterized by 10 times higher supersonic turbulence with a median Mach number of 60. They end up to fall above the Larson scaling relations, similarly to the GMCs in another clumpy z ≃ 1 galaxy, the Cosmic Snake, although differences between the two sets of high-redshift GMCs exist. Altogether they support that GMCs form with properties that adjust to the ambient interstellar medium conditions prevalent in the host galaxy whatever its redshift. The detected A521-sys1 GMCs are massive enough to be the parent gas clouds of stellar clumps, with a relatively high star formation efficiency per free-fall time of ∼11 per cent.

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    The cosmic ionizing emissivity from star-forming galaxies has long been anchored to UV luminosity functions. Here, we introduce an emissivity framework based on Lyα emitters (LAEs), which naturally hones in on the subset of galaxies responsible for the ionizing background due to the intimate connection between production and escape of Lyα and LyC photons. Using constraints on the escape fractions of bright LAEs (LLyα > 0.2L*) at z ≈ 2 obtained from resolved Lyα profiles, and arguing for their redshift-invariance, we show that: (i) quasars and LAEs together reproduce the relatively flat emissivity at z ≈ 2–6, which is non-trivial given the strong evolution in both the star formation density and quasar number density at these epochs and (ii) LAEs produce late and rapid reionization between z ≈ 6−9 under plausible assumptions. Within this framework, the >10 × rise in the UV population-averaged fesc between z ≈ 3–7 naturally arises due to the same phenomena that drive the growing LAE fraction with redshift. Generally, a LAE dominated emissivity yields a peak in the distribution of the ionizing budget with UV luminosity as reported in latest simulations. Using our adopted parameters ($f_{\rm {esc}}=50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, ξion = 1025.9 Hz erg−1 for half the bright LAEs), a highly ionizing minority of galaxies with MUV < −17 accounts for the entire ionizing budget from star-forming galaxies. Rapid flashes of LyC from such rare galaxies produce a ‘disco’ ionizing background. We conclude proposing tests to further develop our suggested Lyα-anchored formalism.

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  3. null (Ed.)

    The ionizing photon escape fraction [Lyman continuum (LyC) fesc] of star-forming galaxies is the single greatest unknown in the reionization budget. Stochastic sightline effects prohibit the direct separation of LyC leakers from non-leakers at significant redshifts. Here we circumvent this uncertainty by inferring fesc using resolved (R > 4000) Lyman α (Lyα) profiles from the X-SHOOTER Lyα survey at z = 2 (XLS-z2). With empirically motivated criteria, we use Lyα profiles to select leakers ($f_{\mathrm{ esc}} > 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) and non-leakers ($f_{\mathrm{ esc}} < 5{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) from a representative sample of >0.2L* Lyman α emitters (LAEs). We use median stacked spectra of these subsets over λrest ≈ 1000–8000 Å to investigate the conditions for LyC fesc. Our stacks show similar mass, metallicity, MUV, and βUV. We find the following differences between leakers versus non-leakers: (i) strong nebular C iv and He ii emission versus non-detections; (ii) [O iii]/[O ii] ≈ 8.5 versus ≈3; (iii) Hα/Hβ indicating no dust versus E(B − V) ≈ 0.3; (iv) Mg ii emission close to the systemic velocity versus redshifted, optically thick Mg ii; and (v) Lyα fesc of ${\approx} 50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ versus ${\approx} 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. The extreme equivalent widths (EWs) in leakers ([O iii]+$\mathrm{ H}\beta \approx 1100$ Å rest frame) constrain the characteristic time-scale of LyC escape to ≈3–10 Myr bursts when short-lived stars with the hardest ionizing spectra shine. The defining traits of leakers – extremely ionizing stellar populations, low column densities, a dust-free, high-ionization state interstellar medium (ISM) – occur simultaneously in the $f_{\rm esc} > 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ stack, suggesting they are causally connected, and motivating why indicators like [O iii]/[O ii] may suffice to constrain fesc at z > 6 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The leakers comprise half of our sample, have a median LyC$f_{\rm esc} \approx 50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ (conservative range: $20\!-\!55{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), and an ionizing production efficiency $\log ({\xi _{\rm {ion}}/\rm {Hz\ erg^{-1}}})\approx 25.9$ (conservative range: 25.7–25.9). These results show LAEs – the type of galaxies rare at z ≈ 2, but that become the norm at higher redshift – are highly efficient ionizers, with extreme ξion and prolific fesc occurring in sync.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the radio properties of 66 spectroscopically confirmed normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 4.4 <z< 5.9 in the COSMOS field that were [Cii]-detected in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Large Program to INvestigate [Cii] at Early times (ALPINE). We separate these galaxies (“Cii-detected-all”) into lower-redshift (“Cii-detected-lz”; 〈z〉 = 4.5) and higher-redshift (“Cii-detected-hz”; 〈z〉 = 5.6) subsamples, and stack multiwavelength imaging for each subsample from X-ray to radio bands. A radio signal is detected in the stacked 3 GHz images of the Cii-detected-all and lz samples at ≳3σ. We find that the infrared–radio correlation of our sample, quantified byqTIR, is lower than the local relation for normal SFGs at a ∼3σsignificance level, and is instead broadly consistent with that of bright submillimeter galaxies at 2 <z< 5. Neither of these samples show evidence of dominant active galactic nucleus activity in their stacked spectral energy distributions (SEDs), UV spectra, or stacked X-ray images. Although we cannot rule out the possible effects of the assumed spectral index and applied infrared SED templates in causing these differences, at least partially, the lower obscured fraction of star formation than at lower redshift can alleviate the tension between our stackedqTIRs and those of local normal SFGs. It is possible that the dust buildup, which primarily governs the infrared emission, in addition to older stellar populations, has not had enough time to occur fully in these galaxies, whereas the radio emission can respond on a more rapid timescale. Therefore, we might expect a lowerqTIRto be a general property of high-redshift SFGs.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    We present the first [C II] 158 μ m luminosity function (LF) at z  ∼ 5 from a sample of serendipitous lines detected in the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE). A study of the 118 ALPINE pointings revealed several serendipitous lines. Based on their fidelity, we selected 14 lines for the final catalog. According to the redshift of their counterparts, we identified eight out of 14 detections as [C II] lines at z  ∼ 5, along with two as CO transitions at lower redshifts. The remaining four lines have an elusive identification in the available catalogs and we considered them as [C II] candidates. We used the eight confirmed [C II] and the four [C II] candidates to build one of the first [C II] LFs at z  ∼ 5. We found that 11 out of these 12 sources have a redshift very similar to that of the ALPINE target in the same pointing, suggesting the presence of overdensities around the targets. Therefore, we split the sample in two (a “clustered” and “field” subsample) according to their redshift separation and built two separate LFs. Our estimates suggest that there could be an evolution of the [C II] LF between z  ∼ 5 and z  ∼ 0. By converting the [C II] luminosity to the star-formation rate, we evaluated the cosmic star-formation rate density (SFRD) at z  ∼ 5. The clustered sample results in a SFRD ∼10 times higher than previous measurements from UV–selected galaxies. On the other hand, from the field sample (likely representing the average galaxy population), we derived a SFRD ∼1.6 higher compared to current estimates from UV surveys but compatible within the errors. Because of the large uncertainties, observations of larger samples will be necessary to better constrain the SFRD at z  ∼ 5. This study represents one of the first efforts aimed at characterizing the demography of [C II] emitters at z  ∼ 5 using a mm selection of galaxies. 
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    Dark matter haloes that reach the H i-cooling mass without prior star formation or external metal pollution represent potential sites for the formation of small – extremely faint – Population III galaxies at high redshifts. Gravitational lensing may in rare cases boost their fluxes to detectable levels, but to find even a small number of such objects in randomly selected regions of the sky requires very large areas to be surveyed. Because of this, a small, wide-field telescope can in principle offer better detection prospects than a large telescope with a smaller field of view. Here, we derive the minimum comoving number density required to allow gravitational lensing to lift such objects at redshift z = 5−16 above the detection thresholds of blind surveys carried out with the James Webb space telescope (JWST), the Roman space telescope (RST) and Euclid. We find that the prospects for photometric detections of Pop III galaxies are promising, and that they are better for RST than for JWST and Euclid. However, the Pop III galaxies favoured by current simulations have number densities too low to allow spectroscopic detections based on the strength of the He ii1640 emission line in any of the considered surveys unless very high star formation efficiencies (ϵ ≳ 0.1) are evoked. We argue that targeting individual cluster lenses instead of the wide-field surveys considered in this paper results in better spectroscopic detection prospects, while for photometric detection, the wide-field surveys perform considerably better.

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