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  1. Abstract

    Light-weight, high-strength, aluminum (Al) alloys have widespread industrial applications. However, most commercially available high-strength Al alloys, like AA 7075, are not suitable for additive manufacturing due to their high susceptibility to solidification cracking. In this work, a custom Al alloy Al92Ti2Fe2Co2Ni2is fabricated by selective laser melting. Heterogeneous nanoscale medium-entropy intermetallic lamella form in the as-printed Al alloy. Macroscale compression tests reveal a combination of high strength, over 700 MPa, and prominent plastic deformability. Micropillar compression tests display significant back stress in all regions, and certain regions have flow stresses exceeding 900 MPa. Post-deformation analyses reveal that, in addition to abundant dislocation activities in Al matrix, complex dislocation structures and stacking faults form in monoclinic Al9Co2type brittle intermetallics. This study shows that proper introduction of heterogeneous microstructures and nanoscale medium entropy intermetallics offer an alternative solution to the design of ultrastrong, deformable Al alloys via additive manufacturing.

     
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  2. Symbol-level precoding (SLP) based on the concept of constructive interference (CI) is shown to be superior to traditional block-level precoding (BLP), however at the cost of a symbol-by-symbol optimization during the precoding design. In this paper, we propose a CI-based block-level precoding (CI-BLP) scheme for the downlink transmission of a multi-user multiple-input single-output (MU-MISO) communication system, where we design a constant precoding matrix to a block of symbol slots to exploit CI for each symbol slot simultaneously. A single optimization problem is formulated to maximize the minimum CI effect over the entire block, thus reducing the computational cost of traditional SLP as the optimization problem only needs to be solved once per block. By leveraging the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions and the dual problem formulation, the original optimization problem is finally shown to be equivalent to a quadratic programming (QP) over a simplex. Numerical results validate our derivations and exhibit superior performance for the proposed CI-BLP scheme over traditional BLP and SLP methods, thanks to the relaxed block-level power constraint. 
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  3. Recently, adversarial examples against object detection have been widely studied. However, it is difficult for these attacks to have an impact on visual perception in autonomous driving because the complete visual pipeline of real-world autonomous driving systems includes not only object detection but also object tracking. In this paper, we present a novel tracker hijacking attack against the multi-target tracking algorithm employed by real-world autonomous driving systems, which controls the bounding box of object detection to spoof the multiple object tracking process. Our approach exploits the detection box generation process of the anchor-based object detection algorithm and designs new optimization methods to generate adversarial patches that can successfully perform tracker hijacking attacks, causing security risks. The evaluation results show that our approach has 85% attack success rate on two detection models employed by real-world autonomous driving systems. We discuss our potential next step for this work. 
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  4. Abstract

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation can be deposited on chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs) by the RNA methyltransferase complex (MTC) to regulate chromatin state and transcription. However, the mechanism by which MTC is recruited to distinct genomic loci remains elusive. Here we identify RBFOX2, a well-studied RNA-binding protein, as a chromatin factor that preferentially recognizes m6A on caRNAs. RBFOX2 can recruit RBM15, an MTC component, to facilitate methylation of promoter-associated RNAs. RBM15 also physically interacts with YTHDC1 and recruits polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the RBFOX2-bound loci for chromatin silencing and transcription suppression. Furthermore, we found that this RBFOX2/m6A/RBM15/YTHDC1/PRC2 axis plays a critical role in myeloid leukaemia. Downregulation of RBFOX2 notably inhibits survival/proliferation of acute myeloid leukaemia cells and promotes their myeloid differentiation. RBFOX2 is also required for self-renewal of leukaemia stem/initiation cells and acute myeloid leukaemia maintenance. Our study presents a pathway of m6A MTC recruitment and m6A deposition on caRNAs, resulting in locus-selective chromatin regulation, which has potential therapeutic implications in leukaemia.

     
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  5. With the increase in volume of daily online news items, it is more and more difficult for readers to identify news articles relevant to their interests. Thus, effective recommendation systems are critical for an effective user news consumption experience. Existing news recommendation methods usually rely on the news click history to model user interest. However, there are other signals about user behaviors, such as user commenting activity, which have not been used before. We propose a recommendation algorithm that predicts articles a user may be interested in, given her historical sequential commenting behavior on news articles. We show that following this sequential user behavior the news recommendation problem falls into in the class of session-based recommendation. The techniques in this class seek to model users' sequential and temporal behaviors. While we seek to follow the general directions in this space, we face unique challenges specific to news in modeling temporal dynamics, e.g., users' interests shift over time, users comment irregularly on articles, and articles are perishable items with limited lifespans. We propose a recency-regularized neural attentive framework for session-based news recommendation. The proposed method is able to capture the temporal dynamics of both users and news articles, while maintaining interpretability. We design a lag-aware attention and a recency regularization to model the time effect of news articles and comments. We conduct extensive empirical studies on 3 real-world news datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. 
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  6. Abstract

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology converts heat into electricity using thermal radiation. Increasing operating temperature is a highly effective approach to improving the efficiency of TPV systems. However, most reported TPV selective emitters degrade rapidly via. oxidation as operating temperatures increase. To address this issue, replacing nanostructured oxide‐metal films with oxide–oxide films is a promising way to greatly limit oxidation, even under high‐temperature conditions. This study introduces new all‐oxide photonic crystal designs for high‐temperature stable TPV systems, overcoming limitations of metal phases and offering promising material choices. The designs utilize both yttria‐stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/MgO and CeO2/MgO combinations with a multilayer structure and stable high‐quality growth. Both designsexhibit positive optical dielectric constants with tunable reflectivity, measured via optical characterization. Thermal stability testing using in situ heating X‐ray diffraction (XRD) suggests high‐temperature stability (up to 1000 °C) of both YSZ/MgO and CeO2/MgO systems. The results demonstrate a new and promising approach to improve the high‐temperature stability of TPV systems, which can be extended to a wide range of material selection and potential designs.

     
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  7. null (Ed.)