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Creators/Authors contains: "Shi, Jia-Rui"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    During recent decades, both greenhouse gases (GHGs) and anthropogenic aerosols (AAs) drove major changes in the Earth's energy imbalance. However, their respective fingerprints in changes to ocean heat content (OHC) have been difficult to isolate and detect when global or hemispheric averages are used. Based on a pattern recognition analysis, we show that AAs drive an interhemispheric asymmetry within the 20°‐35° latitude band in historical OHC change due to the southward shift of the atmospheric and ocean circulation system. This forced pattern is distinct from the GHG‐induced pattern, which dominates the asymmetry in higher latitudes. Moreover, it is found that this significant aerosol‐forced OHC trend pattern can only be captured in analyzed periods of 20 years or longer and including 1975–1990. Using these distinct spatiotemporal characteristics, we show that the fingerprint of aerosol climate forcing in ocean observations can be distinguished from both the stronger GHG‐induced signals and internal variability.

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  3. Abstract

    Separating the climate response to external forcing from internal climate variability is a key challenge. While most previous studies have focused on surface responses, here we examine zonal‐mean patterns of North Pacific subsurface temperature responses. In particular, the changes since 1950 driven by anthropogenic aerosol emissions are found by using a pattern recognition method. Based on the single‐forcing large‐ensemble simulations from two models, we show that aerosol forcing caused a nonmonotonic temporal response and a characteristic zonal‐mean pattern within North Pacific, which is distinct from the pattern associated with internal variability. The aerosol‐forced pattern with the nonmonotonic temporal feature shows a substantial temperature change in subpolar regions and a reversed change on the southern flank of the subtropical gyre. A similar characteristic pattern and nonmonotonic time evolution are extracted from the subsurface observations, which likely reflect the subsurface responses to the aerosol forcing, although differences exist with the simulated responses.

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  4. Anthropogenic surface warming dominates and drives a global acceleration of the upper ocean currents in a warmer climate. 
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  5. Abstract

    Unlike greenhouse gases (GHGs), anthropogenic aerosol (AA) concentrations have increased and then decreased over the past century or so, with the timing of the peak concentration varying in different regions. To date, it has been challenging to separate the climate impact of AAs from that due to GHGs and background internal variability. We use a pattern recognition method, taking advantage of spatiotemporal covariance information, to isolate the forced patterns for the surface ocean and associated atmospheric variables from the all-but-one forcing Community Earth System Model ensembles. We find that the aerosol-forced responses are dominated by two leading modes, with one associated with the historical increase and future decrease of global mean aerosol concentrations (dominated by the Northern Hemisphere sources) and the other due to the transition of the primary sources of AA from the west to the east and also from Northern Hemisphere extratropical regions to tropical regions. In particular, the aerosol transition effect, to some extent compensating the global mean effect, exhibits a zonal asymmetry in the surface temperature and salinity responses. We also show that this transition effect dominates the total AA effect during recent decades, e.g., 1967–2007.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Observations show that since the 1950s, the Southern Ocean has stored a large amount of anthropogenic heat and has freshened at the surface. These patterns can be attributed to two components of surface forcing: poleward-intensified westerly winds and increased buoyancy flux from freshwater and heat. Here we separate the effects of these two forcing components by using a novel partial-coupling technique. We show that buoyancy forcing dominates the overall response in the temperature and salinity structure of the Southern Ocean. Wind stress change results in changes in subsurface temperature and salinity that are closely related to intensified residual meridional overturning circulation. As an important result, we show that buoyancy and wind forcing result in opposing changes in salinity: the wind-induced surface salinity increase due to upwelling of saltier subsurface water offsets surface freshening due to amplification of the global hydrological cycle. Buoyancy and wind forcing further lead to different vertical structures of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport change; buoyancy forcing causes an ACC transport increase (3.1 ± 1.6 Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) by increasing the meridional density gradient across the ACC in the upper 2000 m, while the wind-induced response is more barotropic, with the whole column transport increased by 8.7 ± 2.3 Sv. While previous research focused on the wind effect on ACC intensity, we show that surface horizontal current acceleration within the ACC is dominated by buoyancy forcing. These results shed light on how the Southern Ocean might change under global warming, contributing to more reliable future projections. 
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