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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Autonomous vehicle-following systems, including Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), improve safety, efficiency, and string stability for a vehicle (the ego vehicle) following its leading vehicle. The ego vehicle senses or receives information, such as the position, velocity, acceleration, or even intention, of the leading vehicle and controls its own behavior. However, it has been shown that sensors and wireless channels are vulnerable to security attacks, and attackers can modify data sensed from sensors or received from other vehicles. To address this problem, in this paper, we design three types of stealthy attacks on ACC ormore »CACC inputs, where the stealthy attacks can deceive a rule-based detection approach and impede system properties (collision-freeness and vehicle-following distance). We then develop two deep-learning models, a predictor-based model and an encoder-decoder-based model to detect the attacks, where the two models do not need attacker models for training. The experimental results demonstrate the respective strengths of different models and lead to a methodology for the design of learning-based intrusion detection approaches.« less