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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
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  4. Abstract

    We present near- and mid-infrared (0.9–18μm) photometry of supernova (SN) 2021afdx, which was imaged serendipitously with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of its Early Release Observations of the Cartwheel Galaxy. Our ground-based optical observations show it is likely to be a Type IIb SN, the explosion of a yellow supergiant, and its infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) ≈200 days after explosion shows two distinct components, which we attribute to hot ejecta and warm dust. By fitting models of dust emission to the SED, we derive a dust mass of(3.80.3+0.5)×103M, which is the highest yet observed in a Type IIb SN but consistent with other Type II SNe observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also find that the radius of the dust is significantly larger than the radius of the ejecta, as derived from spectroscopic velocities during the photospheric phase, which implies that we are seeing an infrared echo off of preexisting dust in the progenitor environment, rather than dust newly formed by the SN. Our results show the power of JWST to address questions of dust formation in SNe, and therefore the presence of dust in the early universe,more »with much larger samples than have been previously possible.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023

    We analyse the completeness of the MOSDEF survey, in which z ∼ 2 galaxies were selected for rest-optical spectroscopy from well-studied HST extragalactic legacy fields down to a fixed rest-optical magnitude limit (HAB = 24.5). The subset of z ∼ 2 MOSDEF galaxies with high signal-to-noise (S/N) emission-line detections analysed in previous work represents a small minority (<10 per cent) of possible z ∼ 2 MOSDEF targets. It is therefore crucial to understand how representative this high S/N subsample is, while also more fully exploiting the MOSDEF spectroscopic sample. Using spectral-energy distribution (SED) models and rest-optical spectral stacking, we compare the MOSDEF z ∼ 2 high S/N subsample with the full MOSDEF sample of z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies with redshifts, the latter representing an increase in sample size of more than a factor of three. We find that both samples have similar emission-line properties, in particular in terms of the magnitude of the offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [N ii] BPT diagram. There are small differences in median host galaxy properties, including the stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR), and UVJ colours; however, these offsets are minor considering the wide spread of themore »distributions. Using SED modelling, we also demonstrate that the sample of z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies observed by the MOSDEF survey is representative of the parent catalog of available such targets. We conclude that previous MOSDEF results on the evolution of star-forming galaxy emission-line properties were unbiased relative to the parent z ∼ 2 galaxy population.

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  7. Abstract We present results from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.2 mm continuum observations of a sample of 27 star-forming galaxies at z = 2.1–2.5 from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey with metallicity and star formation rate measurements from optical emission lines. Using stacks of Spitzer, Herschel, and ALMA photometry (rest frame ∼8–400 μ m), we examine the infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SED) of z ∼ 2.3 subsolar-metallicity (∼0.5 Z ⊙ ) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). We find that the data agree well with an average template of higher-luminosity local low-metallicity dwarf galaxies (reduced χ 2 = 1.8). When compared with the commonly used templates for solar-metallicity local galaxies or high-redshift LIRGs and ultraluminous IR galaxies, even in the most favorable case (with reduced χ 2 = 2.8), the templates are rejected at >98% confidence. The broader and hotter IR SED of both the local dwarfs and high-redshift subsolar-metallicity galaxies may result from different grain properties or a harder/more intense ionizing radiation field that increases the dust temperature. The obscured star formation rate (SFR) indicated by the far-IR emission of the subsolar-metallicity galaxies is only ∼60% of the total SFR, considerably lower than that of the local LIRGsmore »with ∼96%–97% obscured fractions. Due to the evolving IR SED shape, the local LIRG templates fit to mid-IR data overestimate the Rayleigh–Jeans tail measurements by a factor of 2–20. These templates underestimate IR luminosities if fit to the observed ALMA fluxes by >0.4 dex. At a given stellar mass or metallicity, dust masses at z ∼ 2.3 are an order of magnitude higher than z ∼ 0. Given the predicted molecular gas fractions, the observed z ∼ 2.3 dust-to-stellar mass ratios suggest lower dust-to-molecular gas masses than in local galaxies with similar metallicities.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Abstract We perform joint modeling of the composite rest-frame far-UV and optical spectra of redshift 1.85 ≤ z ≤ 3.49 star-forming galaxies to deduce key properties of the massive stars, ionized interstellar medium (ISM), and neutral ISM, with the aim of investigating the principal factors affecting the production and escape of Ly α photons. Our sample consists of 136 galaxies with deep Keck/LRIS and MOSFIRE spectra covering, respectively, Ly β through C iii ] λλ 1907, 1909 and [O ii ], [Ne iii ], H β , [O iii ], H α , [N ii ], and [S ii ]. Spectral and photoionization modeling indicates that the galaxies are uniformly consistent with stellar population synthesis models that include the effects of stellar binarity. Over the dynamic range of our sample, there is little variation in stellar and nebular abundance with Ly α equivalent width, W λ (Ly α ), and only a marginal anticorrelation between age and W λ (Ly α ). The inferred range of ionizing spectral shapes is insufficient to solely account for the variation in W λ (Ly α ); rather, the covering fraction of optically thick H i appears to be the principal factor modulating themore »escape of Ly α , with most of the Ly α photons in down-the-barrel observations of galaxies escaping through low column density or ionized channels in the ISM. Our analysis shows that a high star-formation-rate surface density, Σ SFR , particularly when coupled with a low galaxy potential (i.e., low stellar mass), can aid in reducing the covering fraction and ease the escape of Ly α photons. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for the escape of ionizing radiation at high redshift.« less
  9. Abstract

    We investigate the relationship between dust attenuation and stellar mass (M*) in star-forming galaxies over cosmic time. For this analysis, we compare measurements from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey atz∼ 2.3 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) atz∼ 0, augmenting the latter optical data set with both UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry from the GALEX-SDSS-WISE Catalog. We quantify dust attenuation using both spectroscopic measurements of Hαand Hβemission lines, and photometric measurements of the rest-UV stellar continuum. The Hα/Hβratio is used to determine the magnitude of attenuation at the wavelength of Hα,AHα. Rest-UV colors and spectral energy distribution fitting are used to estimateA1600, the magnitude of attenuation at a rest wavelength of 1600 Å. As in previous work, we find a lack of significant evolution in the relation between dust attenuation andM*over the redshift rangez∼ 0 toz∼ 2.3. Folding in the latest estimates of the evolution ofMdust, (Mdust/Mgas), and gas surface density at fixedM*, we find that the expectedMdustand dust mass surface density are both significantly higher atz∼ 2.3 than atz∼ 0. These differences appear at odds with the lack of evolution in dust attenuation. To explain the striking constancymore »in attenuation versusM*, it is essential to determine the relationship between metallicity and (Mdust/Mgas), the dust mass absorption coefficient and dust geometry, and the evolution of these relations and quantities fromz∼ 0 toz∼ 2.3.

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  10. ABSTRACT We perform an aperture-matched analysis of dust-corrected H α and UV star formation rates (SFRs) using 303 star-forming galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts 1.36 < zspec < 2.66 from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey. By combining H α and H β emission line measurements with multiwaveband resolved Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/3D-HST imaging, we directly compare dust-corrected H α and UV SFRs, inferred assuming a fixed attenuation curve shape and constant SFHs, within the spectroscopic aperture. Previous studies have found that H α and UV SFRs inferred with these assumptions generally agree for typical star-forming galaxies, but become increasingly discrepant for galaxies with higher SFRs (≳100 M⊙ yr−1), with H α-to-UV SFR ratios being larger for these galaxies. Our analysis shows that this trend persists even after carefully accounting for the apertures over which H α and UV-based SFRs (and the nebular and stellar continuum reddening) are derived. Furthermore, our results imply that H α SFRs may be higher in the centres of large galaxies (i.e. where there is coverage by the spectroscopic aperture) compared to their outskirts, which could be indicative of inside-out galaxy growth. Overall, we suggest that the persistent difference between nebular and stellar continuum reddening and high H α-to-UV SFR ratios at the centresmore »of large galaxies may be indicative of a patchier distribution of dust in galaxies with high SFRs.« less