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  1. Due to its high breakdown electric field, the ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor AlGaN has garnered much attention recently as a promising channel material for next-generation high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). A comprehensive experimental study of the effects of Al composition x on the transport and structural properties is lacking. We report the charge control and transport properties of polarization-induced 2D electron gases (2DEGs) in strained AlGaN quantum well channels in molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown AlN/Al x Ga 1− x N/AlN double heterostructures by systematically varying the Al content from x = 0 (GaN) to x = 0.74, spanning energy bandgaps of the conducting HEMT channels from 3.49 to 4.9 eV measured by photoluminescence. This results in a tunable 2DEG density from 0 to 3.7 × 10 13 cm 2 . The room temperature mobilities of x ≥ 0.25 AlGaN channel HEMTs were limited by alloy disorder scattering to below 50 cm 2 /(V.s) for these 2DEG densities, leaving ample room for further heterostructure design improvements to boost mobilities. A characteristic alloy fluctuation energy of [Formula: see text] eV for electron scattering in AlGaN alloy is estimated based on the temperature dependent electron transport experiments. 
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  2. Atomic surface cleaning has enabled successful growth of ultrawide bandgap nitrogen-polar aluminum nitride semiconductors. 
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  3. The polarization difference and band offset between Al(Ga)N and GaN induce two-dimensional (2D) free carriers in Al(Ga)N/GaN heterojunctions without any chemical doping. A high-density 2D electron gas (2DEG), analogous to the recently discovered 2D hole gas in a metal-polar structure, is predicted in a N-polar pseudomorphic GaN/Al(Ga)N heterostructure on unstrained AlN. We report the observation of such 2DEGs in N-polar undoped pseudomorphic GaN/AlGaN heterostructures on single-crystal AlN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. With a high electron density of ∼4.3 ×1013/cm2 that maintains down to cryogenic temperatures and a room temperature electron mobility of ∼450 cm2/V s, a sheet resistance as low as ∼320 Ω/◻ is achieved in a structure with an 8 nm GaN layer. These results indicate significant potential of AlN platform for future high-power RF electronics based on N-polar III-nitride high electron mobility transistors.

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