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  1. Abstract

    Refractive index (RI) sensors are of great interest for label-free optical biosensing. A tapered optical fiber (TOF) RI sensor with micron-sized waist diameters can dramatically enhance sensor sensitivity by reducing the mode volume over a long distance. Here, a simple and fast method is used to fabricate highly sensitive refractive index sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Two TOFs (l = 5 mm) with waist diameters of 5 µm and 12 µm demonstrated sensitivity enhancement at λ = 1559 nm for glucose sensing (5–45 wt%) at room temperature. The optical power transmission decreased with increasing glucose concentration due to the interaction of the propagating light in the evanescent field with glucose molecules. The coating of the TOF with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as an active layer for glucose sensing generated LSPR through the interaction of the evanescent wave with AuNPs deposited at the tapered waist. The results indicated that the TOF (Ø = 5 µm) exhibited improved sensing performance with a sensitivity of 1265%/RIU compared to the TOF (Ø = 12 µm) at 560%/RIU towards glucose. The AuNPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolent-visible spectroscopy. The AuNPs-decorated TOF (Ø = 12 µm) demonstrated a high sensitivity of 2032%/RIU toward glucose. The AuNPs-decorated TOF sensor showed a sensitivity enhancement of nearly 4 times over TOFmore »(Ø = 12 µm) with RI ranging from 1.328 to 1.393. The fabricated TOF enabled ultrasensitive glucose detection with good stability and fast response that may lead to next-generation ultrasensitive biosensors for real-world applications, such as disease diagnosis.

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  2. A glucose biofuel cell is presented using laser induced 3D graphene (LIG) substrate integrated with catalytic active nanomaterials for harnessing the biochemical energy of glucose. The LIG anode comprised glucose dehydrogenase immobilized on reduced graphene oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (RGO/MWCNTs) nanocomposite for glucose oxidation. The LIG cathode is modified with RGO/MWCNTs and silver oxide (Ag 2 O) nanocomposites for the reduction of oxygen. The assembled biofuel cell exhibited a linear peak power response up to 18 mM glucose with sensitivity of 0.63 μW mM -1 cm −2 and exhibited good linearity (r 2 = 0.99). The glucose biofuel cell showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.365 V, a maximum power density of 11.3 μW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.25 V, and a short-circuit current density of 45.18 μA cm −2 when operating in 18 mM glucose. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the bioanode exhibited similar linearity for the detection of glucose. These results demonstrate that LIG based bioelectrodes offer great promise for diverse applications in the development of hybrid biofuel cell and biosensor technology.
  3. A glucose biofuel cell on a flexible bacterial nanocellulose film was prepared. The bioelectrodes were printed using gold ink as the conductive material. The anode was modified with colloidal platinum for the oxidation of glucose. The cathode was modified with a nanocomposite comprising gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles. The cathode was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and UV spectroscopy techniques. The assembled biofuel cell generated a maximum open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.485 V, short circuit current (I sc ) of 0.352 mA/cm 2 , and a maximum peak power density (P max ) of 0.032 mW/cm 2 when operating in 30 mM concentration. This system showed a stable and linear performance with a linear range of 1 mM to 30 mM glucose. The gold printed electrode process is applicable to the development of wearable and implantable abiotic biofuel cell.
  4. Abstract

    A hybrid biofuel cell (HBFC) is explored as a low-cost alternative to abiotic and enzymatic biofuel cells. Here the HBFC provides an enzymeless approach for the fabrication of the anodic electrode while employing an enzymatic approach for the fabrication of the cathodic electrode to develop energy harvesting platform to power bioelectronic devices. The anode employed 250 μm braided gold wire modified with colloidal platinum (Au-co-Pt) and bilirubin oxidase (BODx) modified gold coated Buckypaper (BP-Au-BODx) cathode. The functionalization of the gold coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures of the BP electrodes is achieved by 3-mercaptopropionic acid surface modification to possess negatively charged carboxylic groups and subsequently followed by EDC/Sulfo-NHS (1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimide) crosslinking with BODx. The integration of the BODx and gold coated MWCNTs is evaluated for bioelectrocatalytic activity. The Au-co-Pt and BP-Au-BODx exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation with a linear dynamic range up to 20 mM glucose and molecular oxygen reduction, respectively. The HBFC demonstrated excellent performance with the largest open circuit voltages of 0.735 V and power density of 46.31 μW/cm2in 3 mM glucose. In addition, the HBFC operating on 3 mM glucose exhibited excellent uninterrupted operational stability while continuously powering a small electronic device. These results provide greatmore »opportunities for implementing this simple but efficient HBFC to harvest the biochemical energy of target fuel(s) in diverse medical and environmental applications.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the first demonstration of a fully-flexible, self-powered glucose indicator system that synergizes two flexible electronic technologies: a flexible self-powering unit in the form of a biofuel cell, with a flexible electronic device - a circuit-board decal fabricated with biocompatible microbial nanocellulose. Our proof-of-concept device, comprising an enzymatic glucose fuel cell, glucose sensor and a LED indicator, does not require additional electronic equipment for detection or verification; and the entire structure collapses into a microns-thin, self-adhering, single-centimeter-square decal, weighing less than 40 mg. The flexible glucose indicator system continuously operates a light emitting diode (LED) through a capacitive charge/discharge cycle, which is directly correlated to the glucose concentration. Our indicator was shown to operate at high sensitivity within a linear glucose concentration range of 1 mM–45 mM glucose continuously, achieving a 1.8 VDC output from a flexible indicator system that deliver sufficient power to drive an LED circuit. Importantly, the results presented provide a basis upon which further development of indicator systems with biocompatible diffusing polymers to act as buffering diffusion barriers, thereby allowing them to be potentially useful for low-cost, direct-line-of-sight applications in medicine, husbandry, agriculture, and the food and beverage industries.