- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 2021 IEEE Sensors
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 4
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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A glucose biofuel cell is presented using laser induced 3D graphene (LIG) substrate integrated with catalytic active nanomaterials for harnessing the biochemical energy of glucose. The LIG anode comprised glucose dehydrogenase immobilized on reduced graphene oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (RGO/MWCNTs) nanocomposite for glucose oxidation. The LIG cathode is modified with RGO/MWCNTs and silver oxide (Ag 2 O) nanocomposites for the reduction of oxygen. The assembled biofuel cell exhibited a linear peak power response up to 18 mM glucose with sensitivity of 0.63 μW mM -1 cm −2 and exhibited good linearity (r 2 = 0.99). The glucose biofuel cell showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.365 V, a maximum power density of 11.3 μW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.25 V, and a short-circuit current density of 45.18 μA cm −2 when operating in 18 mM glucose. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the bioanode exhibited similar linearity for the detection of glucose. These results demonstrate that LIG based bioelectrodes offer great promise for diverse applications in the development of hybrid biofuel cell and biosensor technology.
Fabrication of highly effective hybrid biofuel cell based on integral colloidal platinum and bilirubin oxidase on gold support
A hybrid biofuel cell (HBFC) is explored as a low-cost alternative to abiotic and enzymatic biofuel cells. Here the HBFC provides an enzymeless approach for the fabrication of the anodic electrode while employing an enzymatic approach for the fabrication of the cathodic electrode to develop energy harvesting platform to power bioelectronic devices. The anode employed 250 μm braided gold wire modified with colloidal platinum (Au-co-Pt) and bilirubin oxidase (BODx) modified gold coated Buckypaper (BP-Au-BODx) cathode. The functionalization of the gold coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures of the BP electrodes is achieved by 3-mercaptopropionic acid surface modification to possess negatively charged carboxylic groups and subsequently followed by EDC/Sulfo-NHS (1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimide) crosslinking with BODx. The integration of the BODx and gold coated MWCNTs is evaluated for bioelectrocatalytic activity. The Au-co-Pt and BP-Au-BODx exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation with a linear dynamic range up to 20 mM glucose and molecular oxygen reduction, respectively. The HBFC demonstrated excellent performance with the largest open circuit voltages of 0.735 V and power density of 46.31 μW/cm2in 3 mM glucose. In addition, the HBFC operating on 3 mM glucose exhibited excellent uninterrupted operational stability while continuously powering a small electronic device. These results provide greatmore »
We present the first demonstration of a fully-flexible, self-powered glucose indicator system that synergizes two flexible electronic technologies: a flexible self-powering unit in the form of a biofuel cell, with a flexible electronic device - a circuit-board decal fabricated with biocompatible microbial nanocellulose. Our proof-of-concept device, comprising an enzymatic glucose fuel cell, glucose sensor and a LED indicator, does not require additional electronic equipment for detection or verification; and the entire structure collapses into a microns-thin, self-adhering, single-centimeter-square decal, weighing less than 40 mg. The flexible glucose indicator system continuously operates a light emitting diode (LED) through a capacitive charge/discharge cycle, which is directly correlated to the glucose concentration. Our indicator was shown to operate at high sensitivity within a linear glucose concentration range of 1 mM–45 mM glucose continuously, achieving a 1.8 VDC output from a flexible indicator system that deliver sufficient power to drive an LED circuit. Importantly, the results presented provide a basis upon which further development of indicator systems with biocompatible diffusing polymers to act as buffering diffusion barriers, thereby allowing them to be potentially useful for low-cost, direct-line-of-sight applications in medicine, husbandry, agriculture, and the food and beverage industries.
Non-Enzymatic Detection of Glucose in Neutral Solution Using PBS-Treated Electrodeposited Copper-Nickel ElectrodesTransition metals have been explored extensively for non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose. However, to enable glucose oxidation, the majority of reports require highly alkaline electrolytes which can be damaging to the sensors and hazardous to handle. In this work, we developed a non-enzymatic sensor for detection of glucose in near-neutral solution based on copper-nickel electrodes which are electrochemically modified in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Nickel and copper were deposited using chronopotentiometry, followed by a two-step annealing process in air (Step 1: at room temperature and Step 2: at 150 °C) and electrochemical stabilization in PBS. Morphology and chemical composition of the electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to measure oxidation reaction of glucose in sodium sulfate (100 mM, pH 6.4). The PBS-Cu-Ni working electrodes enabled detection of glucose with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.2 nM, a dynamic response from 5 nM to 20 mM, and sensitivity of 5.47 ± 0.45 μA cm−2/log10(mole.L−1) at an applied potential of 0.2 V. In addition to the ultralow LOD, the sensors are selective toward glucose in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of ascorbic acid and uric acid spiked in artificial saliva. The optimized PBS-Cu-Nimore »
Laser-induced atmospheric Cu x O formation on copper surface with enhanced electrochemical performance for non-enzymatic glucose sensingCopper oxide nanostructures are widely used for various applications due to their unique optical and electrical properties. In this work, we demonstrate an atmospheric laser-induced oxidation technique for the fabrication of highly electrochemically active copper oxide hierarchical micro/nano structures on copper surfaces to achieve highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing performance. The effect of laser processing power on the composition, crystallinity, microstructure, wettability, and color of the laser-induced oxide on copper (LIO-Cu) surface was systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), EDX-mapping, water contact angle measurements, and optical microscopy. Results of these investigations showed a remarkable increase in copper oxide composition by increasing the laser processing power. The pore size distribution and surface area of the pristine and LIO-Cu sample estimated by N 2 adsorption–desorption data showed a developed mesoporous LIO-Cu structure. The size of the generated nano-oxides, crystallinity, and electroactivity of the LIO-Cu were observed to be adjustable by the laser processing power. The electrocatalytic activity of LIO-Cu surfaces was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) within a potential window of −0.8 to +0.8 V and chronoamperometry in an applied optimized potential of +0.6 V, in 0.1more »