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  1. null (Ed.)
    The challenges faced with current fluorescence imaging agents have motivated us to study two nanostructures based on a hydrophobic dye, 6 H -pyrrolo[3,2- b :4,5- b ’]bis [1,4]benzothiazine (TRPZ). TRPZ is a heteroacene with a rigid, pi-conjugated structure, multiple reactive sites, and unique spectroscopic properties. Here we coupled TRPZ to a tert-butyl carbamate (BOC) protected 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propanoic acid (bisMPA) dendron via azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition. Deprotection of the protected amine groups on the dendron afforded a cationic terminated amphiphile, TRPZ-bisMPA . TRPZ-bisMPA was nanoprecipitated into water to obtain nanoparticles (NPs) with a hydrodynamic radius that was <150 nm. For comparison, TRPZ-PG was encapsulated in pluronic-F127 (Mw = 12 kD), a polymer surfactant to afford NPs almost twice as large as those formed by TRPZ-bisMPA . Size and stability studies confirm the suitability of the TRPZ-bisMPA NPs for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of the TRPZ-bisMPA NPs show a quantum yield of 49%, a Stokes shift of 201 nm (0.72 eV) and a lifetime of 6.3 ns in water. Further evidence was provided by cell viability and cellular uptake studies confirming the low cytotoxicity of TRPZ-bisMPA NPs and their potential in bioimaging.
  2. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) emission has great potential for deep-tissue in vivo biological imaging with high resolution. In this article, the synthesis and characterization of two new xanthene-based RosIndolizine dyes coded Ph RosIndz and tol RosIndz is presented. The dyes are characterized via femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as well as steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopies. The emission of these dyes is shown in the SWIR region with peak emission at 1097 nm. Tol RosIndz was encapsulated with an amphiphilic linear dendritic block co-polymer (LDBC) coded 10-PhPCL-G3 with high uptake yield. Further, cellular toxicity was examined in vitro using HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells where a >90% cell viability was observed at practical concentrations of the encapsulated dye which indicates low toxicity and reasonable biocompatibility.
  3. Belgrano, Andrea (Ed.)
    We found a startling correlation (Pearson ρ > 0.97) between a single event in daily sea surface temperatures each spring, and peak fish egg abundance measurements the following summer, in 7 years of approximately weekly fish egg abundance data collected at Scripps Pier in La Jolla California. Even more surprising was that this event-based result persisted despite the large and variable number of fish species involved (up to 46), and the large and variable time interval between trigger and response (up to ~3 months). To mitigate potential over-fitting, we made an out-of-sample prediction beyond the publication process for the peak summer egg abundance observed at Scripps Pier in 2020 (available on bioRxiv). During peer-review, the prediction failed, and while it would be tempting to explain this away as a result of the record-breaking toxic algal bloom that occurred during the spring (9x higher concentration of dinoflagellates than ever previously recorded), a re-examination of our methodology revealed a potential source of over-fitting that had not been evaluated for robustness. This cautionary tale highlights the importance of testable true out-of-sample predictions of future values that cannot (even accidentally) be used in model fitting, and that can therefore catch model assumptions that maymore »otherwise escape notice. We believe that this example can benefit the current push towards ecology as a predictive science and support the notion that predictions should live and die in the public domain, along with the models that made them.« less