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  4. Abstract

    2D‐on‐3D (2D/3D) perovskite heterostructures present a promising strategy to realize efficient and stable photovoltaics. However, their applicability in inverted solar cells is limited due to the quantum confinement of the 2D‐layer and solvent incompatibilities that disrupt the underlying 3D layer, hampering electron transport at the 2D/3D interface. Herein, solvent‐dependent formation dynamics and structural evolution of 2D/3D heterostructures are investigated via in situ X‐ray scattering. It is revealed that solvent interaction with the 3D surface determines the formation sequence and spatial distribution of quasi‐2D phases withn= 2–4. Isopropanol (IPA) reconstructs the perovskite into a PbI2‐rich surface, forming a strata with smallernfirst, followed by a thinner substratum of largern. In contrast, 2,2,2‐Trifluoroethanol (TFE) preserves the 3D surface, promoting the formation of uniformly distributed largerndomains first, and smallernlast. Leveraging these insights, Dion–Jacobson perovskites are used with superior charge transport properties and structural robustness to fabricate 2D/3D heterostructures dominated byn≥ 3 and engineer a favorable energy landscape for electron tunneling. Inverted solar cells based on 3‐Aminomethylpyridine and TFE achieve a champion efficiency of 23.60%, withVocand FF of 1.19 V and 84.5%, respectively, and superior stabilities witht94of 960 h under thermal stress.

     
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  5. Abstract

    A facile, high‐resolution patterning process is introduced for fabrication of electrolyte‐gated transistors (EGTs) and circuits using a photo‐crosslinkable ion gel and stencil‐based screen printing. The photo‐crosslinkable gel is based on a triblock copolymer incorporating UV‐sensitive terminal azide functionality and a common ionic liquid. Using this material in conjunction with conventional photolithography and stenciling techniques, well‐defined 0.5–1 μm thick ion gel films are patterned on semiconductor channels as narrow as 10 μm. The resulting n‐type ZnO EGTs display high electron mobility (>2 cm2Vs−1) and on/off current ratios (>105). Further, EGT‐based inverters exhibit static gains >23 at supply voltages below 3 V, and five‐stage EGT ring oscillator circuits display dynamic propagation delays of 50 μs per stage. In general, the screen printing and photo‐crosslinking strategy provides a clean room‐compatible method to fabricate EGT circuits with improved sensitivity (gain) and computational power (gain × oscillating frequency). Detailed device analysis indicates that significantly shorter delay times, of order 1 μs, can be obtained by improving the ion gel conductance.

     
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