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  1. ABSTRACT

    We analyse the internal structure and dynamics of cosmic-web filaments connecting massive high-z haloes. Our analysis is based on a high-resolution arepo cosmological simulation zooming-in on three Mpc-scale filaments feeding three massive haloes of $\sim 10^{12}\, \text{M}_\odot$ at z ∼ 4, embedded in a large-scale sheet. Each filament is surrounded by a cylindrical accretion shock of radius $r_{\rm shock} \sim 50 \, {\rm kpc}$. The post-shock gas is in virial equilibrium within the potential well set by an isothermal dark-matter filament. The filament line-mass is $\sim 9\times 10^8\, \text{M}_\odot \, {\rm kpc}^{-1}$, the gas fraction within rshock is the universal baryon fraction, and the virial temperature is ∼7 × 105 K. These all match expectations from analytical models for filament properties as a function of halo mass and redshift. The filament cross-section has three radial zones. In the outer ‘thermal’ (T) zone, $r \ge 0.65 \, r_{\rm shock}$, inward gravity, and ram-pressure forces are overbalanced by outward thermal pressure forces, decelerating the inflowing gas and expanding the shock outwards. In the intermediate ‘vortex’ (V) zone, 0.25 ≤ r/rshock ≤ 0.65, the velocity field is dominated by a quadrupolar vortex structure due to offset inflow along the sheet through the post-shock gas. The outward force is dominated by centrifugal forces associated with these vortices, with additional contributions from global rotation and thermal pressure. Shear and turbulent forces associated with the vortices act inwards. The inner ‘stream’ (S) zone, $r \lt 0.25 \, r_{\rm shock}$, is a dense isothermal core, $T\sim 3 \times 10^4 \, {\rm K}$ and $n_{\rm H}\sim 0.01 \, {\rm cm^{-3}}$, defining the cold streams that feed galaxies. The core is formed by an isobaric cooling flow and is associated with a decrease in outward forces, though exhibiting both inflows and outflows.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Multibody dynamical interactions of binaries with other objects are one of the main driving mechanisms for the evolution of star clusters. It is thus important to bring our understanding of three-body interactions beyond the commonly employed point-particle approximation. To this end, we here investigate the hydrodynamics of three-body encounters between star–black hole (BH) binaries and single stars, focusing on the identification of final outcomes and their long-term evolution and observational properties, using the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO. This type of encounter produces five types of outcomes: stellar disruption, stellar collision, weak perturbation of the original binary, binary member exchange, and triple formation. The two decisive parameters are the binary phase angle, which determines which two objects meet at the first closest approach, and the impact parameter, which sets the boundary between violent and non-violent interactions. When the impact parameter is smaller than the semimajor axis of the binary, tidal disruptions and star-BH collisions frequently occur when the BH and the incoming star first meet, while the two stars mostly merge when the two stars meet first instead. In both cases, the BHs accrete from an accretion disc at super-Eddington rates, possibly generating flares luminous enough to be observed. The stellar collision products either form a binary with the BH or remain unbound to the BH. Upon collision, the merged stars are hotter and larger than the main sequence stars of the same mass at similar age. Even after recovering their thermal equilibrium state, stellar collision products, if isolated, would remain hotter and brighter than main sequence stars until becoming giants.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    The feedback loop between the galaxies producing the background radiation field for reionization and their growth is crucial, particularly for low-mass haloes. Despite this, the vast majority of galaxy formation studies employ a spatially uniform, time-varying reionizing background, with the majority of reionization studies employing galaxy formation models only required to work at high redshift. This paper uses the well-studied TNG galaxy formation model, calibrated at low redshift, coupled to the arepo-rt code, to self-consistently solve the coupled problems of galaxy evolution and reionization, evaluating the impact of patchy (and slow) reionization on early galaxies. thesan-hr is an extension of the thesan project to higher resolution (a factor of 50 increase, with a baryonic mass of mb ≈ 104 M⊙), to additionally enable the study of ‘mini-haloes’ with virial temperatures Tvir < 104 K. Comparing the self-consistent model to a uniform UV background, we show that galaxies in thesan-hr are predicted to be larger in physical extent (by a factor ∼2), less metal enriched (by ∼0.2 dex), and less abundant (by a factor ∼10 at M1500 =   − 10) by z = 5. We show that differences in star formation and enrichment patterns lead to significantly different predictions for star formation in low mass haloes, low-metallicity star formation, and even the occupation fraction of haloes. We posit that cosmological galaxy formation simulations aiming to study early galaxy formation (z ≳ 3) must employ a spatially inhomogeneous UV background to accurately reproduce galaxy properties.

     
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  4. ABSTRACT

    Dynamical interactions involving binaries play a crucial role in the evolution of star clusters and galaxies. We continue our investigation of the hydrodynamics of three-body encounters, focusing on binary black hole (BBH) formation, stellar disruption, and electromagnetic (EM) emission in dynamical interactions between a BH-star binary and a stellar-mass BH, using the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO. This type of encounters can be divided into two classes depending on whether the final outcome includes BBHs. This outcome is primarily determined by which two objects meet at the first closest approach. BBHs are more likely to form when the star and the incoming BH encounter first with an impact parameter smaller than the binary’s semimajor axis. In this case, the star is frequently disrupted. On the other hand, when the two BHs encounter first, frequent consequences are an orbit perturbation of the original binary or a binary member exchange. For the parameters chosen in this study, BBH formation, accompanied by stellar disruption, happens in roughly one out of four encounters. The close correlation between BBH formation and stellar disruption has possible implications for EM counterparts at the binary’s merger. The BH that disrupts the star is promptly surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick disc with accretion rates exceeding the Eddington limit. If the debris disc cools fast enough to become long-lived, EM counterparts can be produced at the time of the BBH merger.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    Upcoming large galaxy surveys will subject the standard cosmological model, Lambda Cold Dark Matter, to new precision tests. These can be tightened considerably if theoretical models of galaxy formation are available that can predict galaxy clustering and galaxy–galaxy lensing on the full range of measurable scales, throughout volumes as large as those of the surveys, and with sufficient flexibility that uncertain aspects of the underlying astrophysics can be marginalized over. This, in particular, requires mock galaxy catalogues in large cosmological volumes that can be directly compared to observation, and can be optimized empirically by Monte Carlo Markov Chains or other similar schemes, thus eliminating or estimating parameters related to galaxy formation when constraining cosmology. Semi-analytic galaxy formation methods implemented on top of cosmological dark matter simulations offer a computationally efficient approach to construct physically based and flexibly parametrized galaxy formation models, and as such they are more potent than still faster, but purely empirical models. Here, we introduce an updated methodology for the semi-analytic L-Galaxies code, allowing it to be applied to simulations of the new MillenniumTNG project, producing galaxies directly on fully continuous past lightcones, potentially over the full sky, out to high redshift, and for all galaxies more massive than $\sim 10^8\, {\rm M}_\odot$. We investigate the numerical convergence of the resulting predictions, and study the projected galaxy clustering signals of different samples. The new methodology can be viewed as an important step towards more faithful forward-modelling of observational data, helping to reduce systematic distortions in the comparison of theory to observations.

     
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  6. ABSTRACT Feedback driven by jets from active galactic nuclei is believed to be responsible for reducing cooling flows in cool-core galaxy clusters. We use simulations to model feedback from hydrodynamic jets in isolated haloes. While the jet propagation converges only after the diameter of the jet is well resolved, reliable predictions about the effects these jets have on the cooling time distribution function only require resolutions sufficient to keep the jet-inflated cavities stable. Comparing different model variations, as well as an independent jet model using a different hydrodynamics code, we show that the dominant uncertainties are the choices of jet properties within a given model. Independent of implementation, we find that light, thermal jets with low momentum flux tend to delay the onset of a cooling flow more efficiently on a 50 Myr time-scale than heavy, kinetic jets. The delay of the cooling flow originates from a displacement and boost in entropy of the central gas. If the jet kinetic luminosity depends on accretion rate, collimated, light, hydrodynamic jets are able to reduce cooling flows in haloes, without a need for jet precession or wide opening angles. Comparing the jet feedback with a ‘kinetic wind’ implementation shows that equal amounts of star formation rate reduction can be achieved by different interactions with the halo gas: the jet has a larger effect on the hot halo gas while leaving the denser, star-forming phase in place, while the wind acts more locally on the star-forming phase, which manifests itself in different time-variability properties. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2024
  7. ABSTRACT

    We study weak gravitational lensing convergence maps produced from the MillenniumTNG simulations by direct projection of the mass distribution on the past backwards lightcone of a fiducial observer. We explore the lensing maps over a large dynamic range in simulation mass and angular resolution, allowing us to establish a clear assessment of numerical convergence. By comparing full physics hydrodynamical simulations with corresponding dark-matter-only runs, we quantify the impact of baryonic physics on the most important weak lensing statistics. Likewise, we predict the impact of massive neutrinos reliably far into the non-linear regime. We also demonstrate that the ‘fixed & paired’ variance suppression technique increases the statistical robustness of the simulation predictions on large scales not only for time slices but also for continuously output lightcone data. We find that both baryonic and neutrino effects substantially impact weak lensing shear measurements, with the latter dominating over the former on large angular scales. Thus, both effects must explicitly be included to obtain sufficiently accurate predictions for stage IV lensing surveys. Reassuringly, our results agree accurately with other simulation results where available, supporting the promise of simulation modelling for precision cosmology far into the non-linear regime.

     
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  8. ABSTRACT

    Cosmological inference with large galaxy surveys requires theoretical models that combine precise predictions for large-scale structure with robust and flexible galaxy formation modelling throughout a sufficiently large cosmic volume. Here, we introduce the millenniumTNG (MTNG) project which combines the hydrodynamical galaxy formation model of illustrisTNG with the large volume of the millennium simulation. Our largest hydrodynamic simulation, covering $(500 \, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc})^3 \simeq (740\, {\rm Mpc})^3$, is complemented by a suite of dark-matter-only simulations with up to 43203 dark matter particles (a mass resolution of $1.32\times 10^8 \, h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$) using the fixed-and-paired technique to reduce large-scale cosmic variance. The hydro simulation adds 43203 gas cells, achieving a baryonic mass resolution of $2\times 10^7 \, h^{-1}{\rm M}_\odot$. High time-resolution merger trees and direct light-cone outputs facilitate the construction of a new generation of semi-analytic galaxy formation models that can be calibrated against both the hydro simulation and observation, and then applied to even larger volumes – MTNG includes a flagship simulation with 1.1 trillion dark matter particles and massive neutrinos in a volume of $(3000\, {\rm Mpc})^3$. In this introductory analysis we carry out convergence tests on basic measures of non-linear clustering such as the matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and halo clustering, and we compare simulation predictions to those from current cosmological emulators. We also use our simulations to study matter and halo statistics, such as halo bias and clustering at the baryonic acoustic oscillation scale. Finally we measure the impact of baryonic physics on the matter and halo distributions.

     
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  9. Abstract A fundamental requirement for reionizing the Universe is that a sufficient fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by galaxies successfully escapes into the intergalactic medium. However, due to the scarcity of high-redshift observational data, the sources driving reionization remain uncertain. In this work, we calculate the ionizing escape fractions (fesc) of reionization-era galaxies from the state-of-the-art thesan simulations, which combine an accurate radiation-hydrodynamic solver (arepo-rt) with the well-tested IllustrisTNG galaxy formation model to self-consistently simulate both small-scale galaxy physics and large-scale reionization throughout a large patch of the universe ($L_\text{box} = 95.5\, \text{cMpc}$). This allows the formation of numerous massive haloes ($M_\text{halo} \gtrsim 10^{10}\, {\text{M}_{\odot }}$), which are often statistically underrepresented in previous studies but are believed to be important to achieving rapid reionization. We find that low-mass galaxies ($M_\text{stars} \lesssim 10^7\, {\text{M}_{\odot }}$) are the main drivers of reionization above z ≳ 7, while high-mass galaxies ($M_\text{stars} \gtrsim 10^8\, {\text{M}_{\odot }}$) dominate the escaped ionizing photon budget at lower redshifts. We find a strong dependence of fesc on the effective star formation rate (SFR) surface density defined as the SFR per gas mass per escape area, i.e. $\bar{\Sigma }_\text{SFR} = \text{SFR}/M_\text{gas}/R_{200}^2$. The variation in halo escape fractions decreases for higher mass haloes, which can be understood from the more settled galactic structure, SFR stability, and fraction of sightlines within each halo significantly contributing to the escaped flux. Dust is capable of reducing the escape fractions of massive galaxies, but the impact on the global fesc depends on the dust model. Finally, active galactic nuclei are unimportant for reionization in thesan and their escape fractions are lower than stellar ones due to being located near the centres of galaxy gravitational potential wells. 
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  10. ABSTRACT

    The intrinsic alignment (IA) of observed galaxy shapes with the underlying cosmic web is a source of contamination in weak lensing surveys. Sensitive methods to identify the IA signal will therefore need to be included in the upcoming weak lensing analysis pipelines. Hydrodynamical cosmological simulations allow us to directly measure the intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies, and thus provide a powerful approach to predict and understand the IA signal. Here we employ the novel, large-volume hydrodynamical simulation MTNG740, a product of the MillenniumTNG (MTNG) project, to study the IA of galaxies. We measure the projected correlation functions between the intrinsic shape/shear of galaxies and various tracers of large-scale structure, w+g, w+m, w++ over the radial range $r_{\rm p} \in [0.02 , 200]\, h^{-1}{\rm Mpc}$ and at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0. We detect significant signal-to-noise IA signals with the density field for both elliptical and spiral galaxies. We also find significant intrinsic shear–shear correlations for ellipticals. We further examine correlations of the intrinsic shape of galaxies with the local tidal field. Here we find a significant IA signal for elliptical galaxies assuming a linear model. We also detect a weak IA signal for spiral galaxies under a quadratic tidal torquing model. Lastly, we measure the alignment between central galaxies and their host dark-matter haloes, finding small to moderate misalignments between their principal axes that decline with halo mass.

     
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