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  1. Abstract

    Shock waves in geological materials are characterized by a sudden release of rapidly expanding gas, liquid, and solid particles. These shock waves may occur due to explosive volcanic eruptions or be artificially triggered. In fact, underground explosions have often been used as an engineering solution for large‐scale excavation, stimulating oil and gas recovery, creating cavities for underground waste storage, and even extinguishing gas field fires. As such, hydrocodes capable of simulating the rapid and significant deformation under extreme conditions can be a valuable tool for ensuring the safety of the explosions. Nevertheless, as most of the hydrocodes are often formulated in an Eulerian grid, this setting makes it non‐trivial to track the deformation configuration of the materials without a level set. The objective of this paper is to propose the use of the material point method equipped with appropriate equation of state (EOS) models as a hydrocode suitable to simulate underground explosions of transverse isotropic geomaterials. To capture the anisotropic effect of the common layered soil deposits, we introduce a new MPM hydrocode where an anisotropic version of the Mie‐Gruneisen EOS is coupled with a frictional Drucker‐Prager plasticity model to replicate the high‐strain‐rate constitutive responses of soil. By leveraging the Lagrangian nature of material points to capture the historical dependence and the Eulerian calculation of internal force, the resultant model is capable of simulating the rapid evolution of geometry of the soil as well as the high‐strain‐rate soil mechanics of anisotropic materials.

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  2. De Lorenzis, L ; Papadrakakis, M ; Zohdi T.I. (Ed.)
    This paper introduces a neural kernel method to generate machine learning plasticity models for micropolar and micromorphic materials that lack material symmetry and have internal structures. Since these complex materials often require higher-dimensional parametric space to be precisely characterized, we introduce a representation learning step where we first learn a feature vector space isomorphic to a finite-dimensional subspace of the original parametric function space from the augmented labeled data expanded from the narrow band of the yield data. This approach simplifies the data augmentation step and enables us to constitute the high-dimensional yield surface in a feature space spanned by the feature kernels. In the numerical examples, we first verified the implementations with data generated from known models, then tested the capacity of the models to discover feature spaces from meso-scale simulation data generated from representative elementary volume (RVE) of heterogeneous materials with internal structures. The neural kernel plasticity model and other alternative machine learning approaches are compared in a computational homogenization problem for layered geomaterials. The results indicate that the neural kernel feature space may lead to more robust forward predictions against sparse and high-dimensional data. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  3. De Lorenzis, Laura ; Papadrakakis, Manolis ; Zohdi, Tarek I. (Ed.)
    This paper presents a graph-manifold iterative algorithm to predict the configurations of geometrically exact shells subjected to external loading. The finite element solutions are first stored in a weighted graph where each graph node stores the nodal displacement and nodal director. This collection of solutions is embedded onto a low-dimensional latent space through a graph isomorphism encoder. This graph embedding step reduces the dimensionality of the nonlinear data and makes it easier for the response surface to be constructed. The decoder, in return, converts an element in the latent space back to a weighted graph that represents a finite element solution. As such, the deformed configuration of the shell can be obtained by decoding the predictions in the latent space without running extra finite element simulations. For engineering applications where the shell is often subjected to concentrated loads or a local portion of the shell structure is of particular interest, we use the solutions stored in a graph to reconstruct a smooth manifold where the balance laws are enforced to control the curvature of the shell. The resultant computer algorithm enjoys both the speed of the nonlinear dimensional reduced solver and the fidelity of the solutions at locations where it matters. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. We introduce a denoising diffusion algorithm to discover microstructures with nonlinear fine-tuned properties. Denoising diffusion probabilistic models are generative models that use diffusion-based dynamics to gradually denoise images and generate realistic synthetic samples. By learning the reverse of a Markov diffusion process, we design an artificial intelligence to efficiently manipulate the topology of microstructures to generate a massive number of prototypes that exhibit constitutive responses sufficiently close to designated nonlinear constitutive behaviors. To identify the subset of microcstructures with sufficiently precise fine-tuned properties, a convolutional neural network surrogate is trained to replace high-fidelity finite element simulations to filter out prototypes outside the admissible range. Results of this study indicate that the denoising diffusion process is capable of creating microstructures of fine-tuned nonlinear material properties within the latent space of the training data. More importantly, this denoising diffusion algorithm can be easily extended to incorporate additional topological and geometric modifications by introducing high-dimensional structures embedded in the latent space. Numerical experiments are conducted on the open-source mechanical MNIST data set (Lejeune, 2020). Consequently, this algorithm is not only capable of performing inverse design of nonlinear effective media, but also learns the nonlinear structure–property map to quantitatively understand the multiscale interplay among the geometry, topology, and their effective macroscopic properties. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. This paper introduces a publicly available PyTorch-ABAQUS deep-learning framework of a family of plasticity models where the yield surface is implicitly represented by a scalar-valued function. In particular, our focus is to introduce a practical framework that can be deployed for engineering analysis that employs a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT/VUMAT) for ABAQUS, which is written in FORTRAN. To accomplish this task while leveraging the back-propagation learning algorithm to speed up the neural-network training, we introduce an interface code where the weights and biases of the trained neural networks obtained via the PyTorch library can be automatically converted into a generic FORTRAN code that can be a part of the UMAT/VUMAT algorithm. To enable third-party validation, we purposely make all the data sets, source code used to train the neural-network-based constitutive models, and the trained models available in a public repository. Furthermore, the practicality of the workflow is then further tested on a dataset for anisotropic yield function to showcase the extensibility of the proposed framework. A number of representative numerical experiments are used to examine the accuracy, robustness and reproducibility of the results generated by the neural network models. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. This article introduces an isometric manifold embedding data-driven paradigm designed to enable model-free simulations with noisy data sampled from a constitutive manifold. The proposed data-driven approach iterates between a global optimization problem that seeks admissible solutions for the balance principle and a local optimization problem that finds the closest point projection of the Euclidean space that isometrically embeds a nonlinear constitutive manifold. To de-noise the database, a geometric autoencoder is introduced such that the encoder first learns to create an approximated embedding that maps the underlying low-dimensional structure of the high-dimensional constitutive manifold onto a flattened manifold with less curvature. We then obtain the noise-free constitutive responses by projecting data onto a denoised latent space that is completely flat by assuming that the noise and the underlying constitutive signal are orthogonal to each other. Consequently, a projection from the conservative manifold onto this de-noised constitutive latent space enables us to complete the local optimization step of the data-driven paradigm. Finally, to decode the data expressed in the latent space without reintroducing noise, we impose a set of isometry constraints while training the autoencoder such that the nonlinear mapping from the latent space to the reconstructed constituent manifold is distance-preserving. Numerical examples are used to both validate the implementation and demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and limitations of the proposed paradigm. 
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  7. Experimental data are often costly to obtain, which makes it difficult to calibrate complex models. For many models an experimental design that produces the best calibration given a limited experimental budget is not obvious. This paper introduces a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm for design of experiments that maximizes the information gain measured by Kullback–Leibler divergence obtained via the Kalman filter (KF). This combination enables experimental design for rapid online experiments where manual trial-and-error is not feasible in the high-dimensional parametric design space. We formulate possible configurations of experiments as a decision tree and a Markov decision process, where a finite choice of actions is available at each incremental step. Once an action is taken, a variety of measurements are used to update the state of the experiment. This new data leads to a Bayesian update of the parameters by the KF, which is used to enhance the state representation. In contrast to the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency index, which requires additional sampling to test hypotheses for forward predictions, the KF can lower the cost of experiments by directly estimating the values of new data acquired through additional actions. In this work our applications focus on mechanical testing of materials. Numerical experiments with complex, history-dependent models are used to verify the implementation and benchmark the performance of the RL-designed experiments. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024