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Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
Hydrogels are candidate building blocks in a wide range of biomaterial applications including soft and biohybrid robotics, microfluidics, and tissue engineering. Recent advances in embedded 3D printing have broadened the design space accessible with hydrogel additive manufacturing. Specifically, the Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH) technique has enabled the fabrication of complex 3D structures using extremely soft hydrogels, e.g., alginate and collagen, by assembling hydrogels within a fugitive support bath. However, the low structural rigidity of FRESH printed hydrogels limits their applications, especially those that require operation in nonaqueous environments. In this study, we demonstrated long-fiber embedded hydrogel 3Dmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
3D Printing Hydrogel-Based Soft and Biohybrid Actuators: A Mini-Review on Fabrication Techniques, Applications, and ChallengesStimuli-responsive hydrogels are candidate building blocks for soft robotic applications due to many of their unique properties, including tunable mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing soft and biohybrid actuators using naturally occurring and synthetic hydrogels to address the increasing demands for machines capable of interacting with fragile biological systems. Recent advancements in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, either as a standalone manufacturing process or integrated with traditional fabrication techniques, have enabled the development of hydrogel-based actuators with on-demand geometry and actuation modalities. This mini-review surveys existing research efforts to inspire the developmentmore »