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Modeling nanoparticle charge distribution in the afterglow of non-thermal plasmas and comparison with measurementsParticle charging in the afterglows of non-thermal plasmas typically take place in a non-neutral space charge environment. We model the same by incorporating particle-ion collision rate constant models, developed in prior work by analyzing particle-ion trajectories calculated using Langevin Dynamics simulations, into species transport equations for ions, electrons and charged particles in the afterglow. A scaling analysis of particle charging and additional Langevin Dynamics calculations of the particle-ion collision rate constant are presented to extend the range of applicability to ion electrostatic to thermal energy ratios of 300 and diffusive Knudsen number (that scales inversely with gas pressure) up to 2000. The developed collision rate constant models are first validated by comparing predictions of particle charge against measured values in a stationary, non-thermal DC plasma from past PK-4 campaigns published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8): 085001 and Phys. Rev. E 72(1): 016406). The comparisons reveal excellent agreement within ±35% for particles of radius 0.6,1.0,1.3 μm in the gas pressure range of ~20-150 Pa. The experiments to probe particle charge distributions by Sharma et al. (J. Physics D: Appl. Phys. 53(24): 245204) are modeled using the validated particle-ion collision rate constant models and the calculated charge fractions are compared with measurements.more »
Tutorial: Langevin Dynamics methods for aerosol particle trajectory simulations and collision rate constant modelingThe Langevin Dynamics (LD) method (also known in the literature as Brownian Dynamics) is routinely used to simulate aerosol particle trajectories for transport rate constant calculations as well as to understand aerosol particle transport in internal and external fluid flows. This tutorial intends to explain the methodological details of setting up a LD simulation of a population of aerosol particles and to deduce rate constants from an ensemble of classical trajectories. We discuss the applicability and limitations of the translational Langevin equation to model the combined stochastic and deterministic motion of particles in fields of force or fluid flow. The drag force and stochastic “diffusion” force terms that appear in the Langevin equation are discussed elaborately, along with a summary of common forces relevant to aerosol systems (electrostatic, gravity, van der Waals, …); a commonly used first order and a fourth order Runge-Kutta time stepping schemes for linear stochastic ordinary differential equations are presented. A MATLAB® implementation of a LD code for simulating particle settling under gravity using the first order scheme is included for illustration. Scaling analysis of aerosol transport processes and the selection of timestep and domain size for trajectory simulations are demonstrated through two specific aerosol processes:more »