skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Taylor, R"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Over recent years, great efforts have been made to push the limits of layered transition metal oxides for secondary battery cathodes. This is particularly true for overall capacity, which has reached a terminal theoretical value for many materials. One avenue for increasing this capacity during charging is the intercalation of anions post cation deintercalation. This work investigates the charging mechanism of the P3-Na0.5Ni0.25 Mn0.75O2 cathode material through cation (Na) deintercalation and anion (ClO4) intercalation by means of density functional theory. The calculations corroborate experimental findings of increased capacity (135 mAh g-1 to 180 mAh g-1) through the intercalation of anions. However, this work demonstrates that a process of simultaneous cation deintercalation/anion intercalation is the primary charging mechanism, with charge compensation reactions of Ni2+/Ni4+ and O2-/O- occurring within the cathode material. To elucidate this simultaneous process, a novel method for computationally determining anion voltage in which one must consider full electrolyte interactions is proposed. Based on the results, it is believed that a simultaneous cation deintercalation/anion intercalation mechanism provides one potential avenue for the discovery of the next generation of secondary batteries.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. There is a national interest in United States women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); however, gender inequality in the social sciences has not received similar attention. Although women increasingly earn postgraduate degrees in the social sciences, women faculty still experience gender inequities. Consistent gender inequities include slower career advancement, blunted salaries, unequal workloads, work-life conflict, systemic gender biases, underrepresentation in positions of power, and hostile work environments. Cultural biases suggest that once women have achieved parity, gender bias no longer exists. This review challenges that notion by providing evidence from social science domains in which women are well-represented but continue to face systemic gender biases. We examine cultural influences on gender representation and career advancement in psychology, economics, political science, sociology, and anthropology. We make interdisciplinary comparisons of career trajectories and salaries using national data, documenting patterns across the social sciences. For example, women economists face gendered standards in publishing, and women political scientists are less likely to have their work cited than men. Furthermore, data show that salaries become stagnant as the representation of women in these fields increases. These disparities reflect cultural biases in perceptions of women’s competence stemming from social role theory. We discussmore »best practices to address these problems, focusing on the ADVANCE organizational change programs funded by the National Science Foundation that target (a) improving academic climate, (b) providing professional development, and (c) fostering social networking. Federally supported interventions can reveal systemic gender biases in academia and reduce gender disparities for women academics in the social sciences.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 26, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  5. Conserved homology 1 (C1) domains are peripheral zinc finger domains that are responsible for recruiting their host signaling proteins, including Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes, to diacylglycerol-containing lipid membranes. In this work, we investigated the reactivity of the C1 structural zinc sites, using the cysteine-rich C1B regulatory region of the PKCα isoform as a paradigm. The choice of Cd 2+ as a probe was prompted by previous findings that xenobiotic metal ions modulate PKC activity. Using solution NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, we found that Cd 2+ spontaneously replaced Zn 2+ in both structural sites of the C1B domain, with the formation of all-Cd and mixed Zn/Cd protein species. The Cd 2+ substitution for Zn 2+ preserved the C1B fold and function, as probed by its ability to interact with a potent tumor-promoting agent. Both Cys 3 His metal-ion sites of C1B have higher affinity to Cd 2+ than Zn 2+ , but are thermodynamically and kinetically inequivalent with respect to the metal ion replacement, despite the identical coordination spheres. We find that even in the presence of the oxygen-rich sites presented by the neighboring peripheral membrane-binding C2 domain, the thiol-rich sites can successfully compete for the available Cd 2+ .more »Our results indicate that Cd 2+ can target the entire membrane-binding regulatory region of PKCs, and that the competition between the thiol- and oxygen-rich sites will likely determine the activation pattern of PKCs.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  7. The inner ear is essential for maintaining balance and hearing predator and prey in the environment. Each inner ear contains three CaCO3 otolith polycrystals, which are calcified within an alkaline, K+-rich endolymph secreted by the surrounding epithelium. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood, especially in marine fish. Here, we investigated the presence and cellular localization of several ion-transporting proteins within the saccular epithelium of the Pacific Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Western blotting revealed the presence of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), Na+-K+-2Cl--co-transporter (NKCC), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA), and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Immunohistochemistry analysis identified two distinct ionocytes types in the saccular epithelium: Type-I ionocytes were mitochondrion-rich and abundantly expressed NKA and NKCC in their basolateral membrane, indicating a role in secreting K+ into the endolymph. On the other hand, Type-II ionocytes were enriched in cytoplasmic CA and VHA, suggesting they help transport HCO3- into the endolymph and remove H+. In addition, both types of ionocytes expressed cytoplasmic PMCA, which is likely involved in Ca2+ transport and homeostasis, as well as sAC, an evolutionary conserved acid-base sensing enzyme that regulates epithelial ion transport. Furthermore, CA, VHA, and sAC were also expressed within the capillariesmore »that supply blood to the meshwork area, suggesting additional mechanisms that contribute to otolith calcification. This information improves our knowledge about the cellular mechanisms responsible for endolymph ion regulation and otolith formation, and can help understand responses to environmental stressors such as ocean acidification.« less