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  1. Abstract

    Fast empirical models of the broad emission line region (BLR) are a powerful tool to interpret velocity-resolved reverberation mapping (RM) data, estimate the mass of the supermassive black holes, and gain insight into its geometry and kinematics. Much of the effort so far has been devoted to describing the emissivity of one emission line at a time. We present here an alternative approach aimed at describing the underlying BLR gas distribution, by exploiting simple numerical recipes to connect it with emissivity. This approach is a step toward describing multiple emission lines originating from the same gas and allows us to clarify some issues related to the interpretation of RM data. We illustrate this approach—implemented in the codeCARAMEL-gas—using three data sets covering the Hβemission line (Mrk 50, Mrk 1511, Arp 151) that have been modeled using the emissivity-based version of the code. As expected, we find differences in the parameters describing the BLR gas and emissivity distribution, but the emissivity-weighted lag measurements and all other model parameters including black hole mass and overall BLR morphology and kinematics are consistent with the previous measurements. We also model the Hαemission line for Arp 151 using both the gas- and emissivity-based BLR models.more »We find ionization stratification in the BLR with Hαarising at larger radii than Hβ, while all other model parameters are consistent within the uncertainties.

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    We present a Bayesian inference on the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium (IGM), $\overline{x}_{\small HI}$, at z ∼ 6–8 using the properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) during the epoch of reionization. We use large samples of LBG candidates at 5.5 ≤ z ≤ 8.2 with spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS and Keck/MOSFIRE. For each galaxy, we incorporate either the Lyman-α (Lyα) equivalent width (EW) for detections or the EW limit spectrum for non-detections to parametrize the EW distribution at various ultraviolet brightnesses for a given redshift. Using our reference sample of galaxy candidates from the ionized universe at z ∼ 6.0, we are able to infer $\overline{x}_{\small HI}$ at two redshifts: z ∼ 6.7 and z ∼ 7.6. This work includes intrinsically faint, gravitationally lensed galaxies at z ∼ 6.0 in order to constrain the intrinsic faint-end Lyα EW distribution and provide a comparable population of galaxies to counterparts in our sample that are at higher redshift. The inclusion of faint galaxy candidates, in addition to a more sophisticated modelling framework, allows us to better isolate effects of the interstellar medium and circumgalactic medium on the observed Lyα distribution from those of the IGM. We infer an upper limitmore »of $\overline{x}_{\small HI}$ ≤ 0.25 (0.44) at z = 6.7 ± 0.2 and a neutral fraction of $\overline{x}_{\small HI}$ = $0.83^{+0.08}_{-0.11}$ (0.83$^{+0.11}_{-0.21}$) at z = 7.6 ± 0.6, both within 68 per cent (95 per cent) uncertainty, results that favour a moderately late and fairly rapid reionization.

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  3. Abstract We carry out a comparative analysis of the relation between the mass of supermassive black holes (BHs) and the stellar mass of their host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.7 using well-matched observations and multiple state-of-the-art simulations (e.g., MassiveBlackII, Horizon-AGN, Illustris, TNG, and a semianalytic model). The observed sample consists of 646 uniformly selected Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars (0.2 < z < 0.8) and 32 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 1.2 < z < 1.7) with imaging from Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) for the former and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the latter. We first add realistic observational uncertainties to the simulation data and then construct a simulated sample in the same manner as the observations. Over the full redshift range, our analysis demonstrates that all simulations predict a level of intrinsic scatter of the scaling relations comparable to the observations that appear to agree with the dispersion of the local relation. Regarding the mean relation, Horizon-AGN and TNG are in closest agreement with the observations at low and high redshift ( z ∼ 0.2 and 1.5, respectively), while the other simulations show subtle differences within the uncertainties. For insight into the physics involved, the scatter of themore »scaling relation, seen in the SAM, is reduced by a factor of two and closer to the observations after adopting a new feedback model that considers the geometry of the AGN outflow. The consistency in the dispersion with redshift in our analysis supports the importance of both quasar- and radio-mode feedback prescriptions in the simulations. Finally, we highlight the importance of increasing the sensitivity (e.g., using the James Webb Space Telescope), thereby pushing to lower masses and minimizing biases due to selection effects.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023

    We present size measurements of 78 high-redshift (z ≥ 5.5) galaxy candidates from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS). These distant galaxies are well resolved due to the gravitational lensing power of foreground galaxy clusters, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We compute sizes using the forward-modelling code lenstruction and account for magnification using public lens models. The resulting size–magnitude measurements confirm the existence of many small galaxies with effective radii Reff < 200 pc in the early Universe, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we highlight compact and highly star-forming sources with star formation rate surface densities $\Sigma _\text{SFR}\gt 10\, \mathrm{M}_\odot \, \text{yr}^{-1}\, \text{kpc}^{-2}$ as possible Lyman continuum leaking candidates that could be major contributors to the process of reionization. Future spectroscopic follow-up of these compact galaxies (e.g. with the James Webb Space Telescope) will further clarify their role in reionization and the physics of early star formation.

  5. Abstract Identifying multiply imaged quasars is challenging owing to their low density in the sky and the limited angular resolution of wide-field surveys. We show that multiply imaged quasars can be identified using unresolved light curves, without assuming a light-curve template or any prior information. After describing our method, we show, using simulations, that it can attain high precision and recall when we consider high-quality data with negligible noise well below the variability of the light curves. As the noise level increases to that of the Zwicky Transient Facility telescope, we find that precision can remain close to 100% while recall drops to ∼60%. We also consider some examples from Time Delay Challenge 1 and demonstrate that the time delays can be accurately recovered from the joint light-curve data in realistic observational scenarios. We further demonstrate our method by applying it to publicly available COSMOGRAIL data of the observed lensed quasar SDSS J1226−0006. We identify the system as a lensed quasar based on the unresolved light curve and estimate a time delay in good agreement with the one measured by COSMOGRAIL using the individual image light curves. The technique shows great potential to identify lensed quasars in wide-field imaging surveys,more »especially the soon-to-be-commissioned Vera Rubin Observatory.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 7, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT Strongly lensed quasars can provide measurements of the Hubble constant (H0) independent of any other methods. One of the key ingredients is exquisite high-resolution imaging data, such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and adaptive-optics (AO) imaging from ground-based telescopes, which provide strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. In this work, we expand on the previous analysis of three time-delay lenses with AO imaging (RX J1131−1231, HE 0435−1223, and PG 1115+080), and perform a joint analysis of J0924+0219 by using AO imaging from the Keck telescope, obtained as part of the Strong lensing at High Angular Resolution Program (SHARP) AO effort, with HST imaging to constrain the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy. Under the assumption of a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model with fixed Ωm = 0.3, we show that by marginalizing over two different kinds of mass models (power-law and composite models) and their transformed mass profiles via a mass-sheet transformation, we obtain $\Delta t_{\rm BA}=6.89\substack{+0.8\\-0.7}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, $\Delta t_{\rm CA}=10.7\substack{+1.6\\-1.2}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, and $\Delta t_{\rm DA}=7.70\substack{+1.0\\-0.9}\, h^{-1}\hat{\sigma }_{v}^{2}$ d, where $h=H_{0}/100\,\rm km\, s^{-1}\, Mpc^{-1}$ is the dimensionless Hubble constant and $\hat{\sigma }_{v}=\sigma ^{\rm ob}_{v}/(280\,\rm km\, s^{-1})$ is the scaled dimensionless velocity dispersion. Future measurements of timemore »delays with 10 per cent uncertainty and velocity dispersion with 5 per cent uncertainty would yield a H0 constraint of ∼15 per cent precision.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023
  8. Schmidt, Dirk ; Schreiber, Laura ; Vernet, Elise (Ed.)
    We present the status and plans for the Keck All sky Precision Adaptive optics (KAPA) program. KAPA includes (1) an upgrade to the Keck I laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) facility to improve image quality and sky coverage, (2) the inclusion of AO telemetry-based point spread function estimates with all science exposures, (3) four key science programs, and (4) an educational component focused on broadening the participation of women and underrepresented groups in instrumentation. For this conference we focus on the KAPA upgrades since the 2020 SPIE proceedings1 including implementation of a laser asterism generator, wavefront sensor, real-time controller, asterism and turbulence simulators, the laser tomography system itself along with new operations software and science tools, and modifications to an existing near-infrared tip-tilt sensor to support multiple natural guide star and focus measurements. We will also report on the results of daytime and on-sky calibrations and testing.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 29, 2023
  9. ABSTRACT Astrometric precision and knowledge of the point spread function are key ingredients for a wide range of astrophysical studies including time-delay cosmography in which strongly lensed quasar systems are used to determine the Hubble constant and other cosmological parameters. Astrometric uncertainty on the positions of the multiply-imaged point sources contributes to the overall uncertainty in inferred distances and therefore the Hubble constant. Similarly, knowledge of the wings of the point spread function is necessary to disentangle light from the background sources and the foreground deflector. We analyse adaptive optics (AO) images of the strong lens system J 0659+1629 obtained with the W. M. Keck Observatory using the laser guide star AO system. We show that by using a reconstructed point spread function we can (i) obtain astrometric precision of <1 mas, which is more than sufficient for time-delay cosmography; and (ii) subtract all point-like images resulting in residuals consistent with the noise level. The method we have developed is not limited to strong lensing, and is generally applicable to a wide range of scientific cases that have multiple point sources nearby.