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  1. ABSTRACT

    We analyse new multifilter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe out to ≈2400 d after maximum light, the latest observations to date of a SN Ia. We model the pseudo-bolometric light curve with a simple radioactive decay model and find energy input from both 57Co and 55Fe are needed to power the late-time luminosity. This is the first detection of 55Fe in a SN Ia. We consider potential sources of contamination such as a surviving companion star or delaying the deposition time-scale for 56Co positrons but these scenarios are ultimately disfavored. The relative isotopic abundances place direct constraints on the burning conditions experienced by the white dwarf (WD). Additionally, we place a conservative upper limit of <10−3 M⊙ on the synthesized mass of 44Ti. Only two classes of explosion models are currently consistent with all observations of SN 2011fe: (1) the delayed detonation of a low-ρc, near-MCh (1.2–1.3 M⊙) WD, or (2) a sub-MCh (1.0–1.1 M⊙) WD experiencing a thin-shell double detonation.

  2. Abstract

    We present three new spectra of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe covering ≈480–850 days after maximum light and show that the ejecta undergoes a rapid ionization shift at ∼500 days after explosion. The prominent Feiiiemission lines at ≈4600 Å are replaced with Fei+Feiiblends at ∼4400 Å and ∼5400 Å. The ≈7300 Å feature, which is produced by [Feii]+[Niii] at ≲400 days after explosion, is replaced by broad (≈±15,000 km s−1) symmetric [Caii] emission. Models predict this ionization transition occurring ∼100 days later than what is observed, which we attribute to clumping in the ejecta. Finally, we use the nebular-phase spectra to test several proposed progenitor scenarios for SN 2011fe. Nondetections of H and He exclude nearby nondegenerate companions, [Oi] nondetections disfavor the violent merger of two white dwarfs, and the symmetric emission-line profiles favor a symmetric explosion.

  3. ABSTRACT We present Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectroscopy of ESO 253−G003, which hosts a known active galactic nucleus (AGN) and the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko, observed as part of the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field of Nearby Galaxies survey. The MUSE observations reveal that the inner region hosts two AGN separated by $1.4\pm 0.1~\rm {kpc}$ (≈1${_{.}^{\prime\prime}}$7). The brighter nucleus has asymmetric broad permitted emission-line profiles and is associated with the archival AGN designation. The fainter nucleus does not have a broad emission-line component but exhibits other AGN characteristics, including $\hbox{$v_{\rm {FWHM}}$} \approx 700~\hbox{km~s$^{-1}$}$ forbidden line emission, $\rm{\log _{10}(\rm{[O\,\small {III}]}/\rm{H\beta})} \approx 1.1$, and high-excitation potential emission lines, such as [Fe vii] λ6086 and He ii λ4686. The host galaxy exhibits a disturbed morphology with large kpc-scale tidal features, potential outflows from both nuclei, and a likely superbubble. A circular relativistic disc model cannot reproduce the asymmetric broad emission-line profiles in the brighter nucleus, but two non-axisymmetric disc models provide good fits to the broad emission-line profiles: an elliptical disc model and a circular disc + spiral arm model. Implications for the periodic nuclear transient ASASSN-14ko are discussed.
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  5. ABSTRACT One observational prediction for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) explosions produced through white dwarf–white dwarf collisions is the presence of bimodal velocity distributions for the 56Ni decay products, although this signature can also be produced by an off-centre ignition in a delayed detonation explosion. These bimodal velocity distributions can manifest as double-peaked or flat-topped spectral features in late-time spectroscopic observations for favourable viewing angles. We present nebular-phase spectroscopic observations of 17 SNe Ia obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope. Combining these observations with an extensive search of publicly available archival data, we collect a total sample of 48 SNe Ia and classify them based on whether they show compelling evidence for bimodal velocity profiles in three features associated with 56Ni decay products: the [Fe ii] and [Fe iii] feature at ∼5300 Å, the [Co iii] λ5891 feature, and the [Co iii] and [Fe ii] feature at ∼6600 Å. We identify nine bimodal SNe in our sample, and we find that these SNe have average peak MV about 0.3 mag fainter than those that do not. This is consistent with theoretical predictions for explosions created by nearly head-on collisions of white dwarfs due to viewing angle effects and 56Ni yields.
  6. null (Ed.)
  7. ABSTRACT We place statistical constraints on Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors using 227 nebular-phase spectra of 111 SNe Ia. We find no evidence of stripped companion emission in any of the nebular-phase spectra. Upper limits are placed on the amount of mass that could go undetected in each spectrum using recent hydrodynamic simulations. With these null detections, we place an observational 3σ upper limit on the fraction of SNe Ia that are produced through the classical H-rich non-degenerate companion scenario of $\lt 5.5 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. Additionally, we set a tentative 3σ upper limit otan He star progenitor scenarios of $\lt 6.4 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, although further theoretical modelling is required. These limits refer to our most representative sample including normal, 91bg-like, 91T-like, and ‘super-Chandrasekhar’ SNe Ia but excluding SNe Iax and SNe Ia-CSM. As part of our analysis, we also derive a Nebular Phase Phillips Relation, which approximates the brightness of an SN Ia from 150 to 500 d after maximum using the peak magnitude and decline rate parameter Δm15(B).
  8. ABSTRACT We present observations of ASASSN-19dj, a nearby tidal disruption event (TDE) discovered in the post-starburst galaxy KUG 0810+227 by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) at a distance of d ≃ 98 Mpc. We observed ASASSN-19dj from −21 to 392 d relative to peak ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission using high-cadence, multiwavelength spectroscopy and photometry. From the ASAS-SN g-band data, we determine that the TDE began to brighten on 2019 February 6.8 and for the first 16 d the rise was consistent with a flux ∝t2 power law. ASASSN-19dj peaked in the UV/optical on 2019 March 6.5 (MJD = 58548.5) at a bolometric luminosity of L = (6.2 ± 0.2) × 1044 erg s−1. Initially remaining roughly constant in X-rays and slowly fading in the UV/optical, the X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude ∼225 d after peak, resulting from the expansion of the X-ray emitting region. The late-time X-ray emission is well fitted by a blackbody with an effective radius of ∼1 × 1012 cm and a temperature of ∼6 × 105 K. The X-ray hardness ratio becomes softer after brightening and then returns to a harder state as the X-rays fade. Analysis of Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey images reveals a nuclear outburst roughly 14.5 yr earlier with a smooth declinemore »and a luminosity of LV ≥ 1.4 × 1043 erg s−1, although the nature of the flare is unknown. ASASSN-19dj occurred in the most extreme post-starburst galaxy yet to host a TDE, with Lick HδA = 7.67 ± 0.17 Å.« less
  9. ABSTRACT We present the discovery of ASASSN-18jd (AT 2018bcb), a luminous optical/ultraviolet(UV)/X-ray transient located in the nucleus of the galaxy 2MASX J22434289–1659083 at z = 0.1192. Over the year after discovery, Swift UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) photometry shows the UV spectral energy distribution of the transient to be well modelled by a slowly shrinking blackbody with temperature $T \sim 2.5 \times 10^{4} \, {\rm K}$, a maximum observed luminosity of $L_{\rm max} = 4.5^{+0.6}_{-0.3}\times 10^{44} \, {\rm erg \,s}^{-1}$, and a radiated energy of $E = 9.6^{+1.1}_{-0.6} \times 10^{51} \, {\rm erg}$. X-ray data from Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and XMM–Newton show a transient, variable X-ray flux with blackbody and power-law components that fade by nearly an order of magnitude over the following year. Optical spectra show strong, roughly constant broad Balmer emission and transient features attributable to He ii, N iii–v, O iii, and coronal Fe. While ASASSN-18jd shares similarities with tidal disruption events (TDEs), it is also similar to the newly discovered nuclear transients seen in quiescent galaxies and faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs).