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  1. Abstract

    External cycling regenerating nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) from their oxidative reservoir, NOz, is proposed to reshape the temporal–spatial distribution of NOxand consequently hydroxyl radical (OH), the most important oxidant in the atmosphere. Here we verify the in situ external cycling of NOxin various environments with nitrous acid (HONO) as an intermediate based on synthesized field evidence collected onboard aircraft platform at daytime. External cycling helps to reconcile stubborn underestimation on observed ratios of HONO/NO2and NO2/NOzby current chemical model schemes and rationalize atypical diurnal concentration profiles of HONO and NO2lacking noontime valleys specially observed in low-NOxatmospheres. Perturbation on the budget of HONO and NOxby external cycling is also found to increase as NOxconcentration decreases. Consequently, model underestimation of OH observations by up to 41% in low NOxatmospheres is attributed to the omission of external cycling in models.

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  2. Iodine is an atmospheric trace element emitted from oceans that efficiently destroys ozone (O 3 ). Low O 3 in airborne dust layers is frequently observed but poorly understood. We show that dust is a source of gas-phase iodine, indicated by aircraft observations of iodine monoxide (IO) radicals inside lofted dust layers from the Atacama and Sechura Deserts that are up to a factor of 10 enhanced over background. Gas-phase iodine photochemistry, commensurate with observed IO, is needed to explain the low O 3 inside these dust layers (below 15 ppbv; up to 75% depleted). The added dust iodine can explain decreases in O 3 of 8% regionally and affects surface air quality. Our data suggest that iodate reduction to form volatile iodine species is a missing process in the geochemical iodine cycle and presents an unrecognized aeolian source of iodine. Atmospheric iodine has tripled since 1950 and affects ozone layer recovery and particle formation. 
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  3. Abstract. Glyoxal (CHOCHO), the simplest dicarbonyl in thetroposphere, is a potential precursor for secondary organic aerosol (SOA)and brown carbon (BrC) affecting air quality and climate. The airbornemeasurement of CHOCHO concentrations during the KORUS-AQ (KORea–US AirQuality study) campaign in 2016 enables detailed quantification of lossmechanisms pertaining to SOA formation in the real atmosphere. Theproduction of this molecule was mainly from oxidation of aromatics (59 %)initiated by hydroxyl radical (OH). CHOCHO loss to aerosol was found to bethe most important removal path (69 %) and contributed to roughly∼ 20 % (3.7 µg sm−3 ppmv−1 h−1,normalized with excess CO) of SOA growth in the first 6 h in SeoulMetropolitan Area. A reactive uptake coefficient (γ) of∼ 0.008 best represents the loss of CHOCHO by surface uptakeduring the campaign. To our knowledge, we show the first field observationof aerosol surface-area-dependent (Asurf) CHOCHO uptake, which divergesfrom the simple surface uptake assumption as Asurf increases in ambientcondition. Specifically, under the low (high) aerosol loading, the CHOCHOeffective uptake rate coefficient, keff,uptake, linearly increases(levels off) with Asurf; thus, the irreversible surface uptake is areasonable (unreasonable) approximation for simulating CHOCHO loss toaerosol. Dependence on photochemical impact and changes in the chemical andphysical aerosol properties “free water”, as well as aerosol viscosity,are discussed as other possible factors influencing CHOCHO uptake rate. Ourinferred Henry's law coefficient of CHOCHO, 7.0×108 M atm−1, is ∼ 2 orders of magnitude higher than thoseestimated from salting-in effects constrained by inorganic salts onlyconsistent with laboratory findings that show similar high partitioning intowater-soluble organics, which urges more understanding on CHOCHO solubilityunder real atmospheric conditions. 
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  4. Abstract. Fires emit sufficient sulfur to affect local and regional airquality and climate. This study analyzes SO2 emission factors andvariability in smoke plumes from US wildfires and agricultural fires, as well as theirrelationship to sulfate and hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) formation.Observed SO2 emission factors for various fuel types show goodagreement with the latest reviews of biomass burning emission factors,producing an emission factor range of 0.47–1.2 g SO2 kg−1 C.These emission factors vary with geographic location in a way that suggeststhat deposition of coal burning emissions and application ofsulfur-containing fertilizers likely play a role in the larger observedvalues, which are primarily associated with agricultural burning. A 0-D boxmodel generally reproduces the observed trends of SO2 and total sulfate(inorganic + organic) in aging wildfire plumes. In many cases, modeled HMSis consistent with the observed organosulfur concentrations. However, acomparison of observed organosulfur and modeled HMS suggests that multipleorganosulfur compounds are likely responsible for the observations but thatthe chemistry of these compounds yields similar production and loss rates asthat of HMS, resulting in good agreement with the modeled results. Weprovide suggestions for constraining the organosulfur compounds observedduring these flights, and we show that the chemistry of HMS can alloworganosulfur to act as an S(IV) reservoir under conditions of pH > 6 and liquid water content>10−7 g sm−3. This canfacilitate long-range transport of sulfur emissions, resulting in increasedSO2 and eventually sulfate in transported smoke. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Oceans emit large quantities of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to the marine atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS leads to the formation and growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with consequent effects on Earth’s radiation balance and climate. The quantitative assessment of the impact of DMS emissions on CCN concentrations necessitates a detailed description of the oxidation of DMS in the presence of existing aerosol particles and clouds. In the unpolluted marine atmosphere, DMS is efficiently oxidized to hydroperoxymethyl thioformate (HPMTF), a stable intermediate in the chemical trajectory toward sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ultimately sulfate aerosol. Using direct airborne flux measurements, we demonstrate that the irreversible loss of HPMTF to clouds in the marine boundary layer determines the HPMTF lifetime ( τ HPMTF < 2 h) and terminates DMS oxidation to SO 2 . When accounting for HPMTF cloud loss in a global chemical transport model, we show that SO 2 production from DMS is reduced by 35% globally and near-surface (0 to 3 km) SO 2 concentrations over the ocean are lowered by 24%. This large, previously unconsidered loss process for volatile sulfur accelerates the timescale for the conversion of DMS to sulfate while limiting new particle formation in the marine atmosphere and changing the dynamics of aerosol growth. This loss process potentially reduces the spatial scale over which DMS emissions contribute to aerosol production and growth and weakens the link between DMS emission and marine CCN production with subsequent implications for cloud formation, radiative forcing, and climate. 
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  6. Oceanic emissions of iodine destroy ozone, modify oxidative capacity, and can form new particles in the troposphere. However, the impact of iodine in the stratosphere is highly uncertain due to the lack of previous quantitative measurements. Here, we report quantitative measurements of iodine monoxide radicals and particulate iodine (Iy,part) from aircraft in the stratosphere. These measurements support that 0.77 ± 0.10 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) total inorganic iodine (Iy) is injected to the stratosphere. These high Iyamounts are indicative of active iodine recycling on ice in the upper troposphere (UT), support the upper end of recent Iyestimates (0 to 0.8 pptv) by the World Meteorological Organization, and are incompatible with zero stratospheric iodine injection. Gas-phase iodine (Iy,gas) in the UT (0.67 ± 0.09 pptv) converts to Iy,partsharply near the tropopause. In the stratosphere, IO radicals remain detectable (0.06 ± 0.03 pptv), indicating persistent Iy,partrecycling back to Iy,gasas a result of active multiphase chemistry. At the observed levels, iodine is responsible for 32% of the halogen-induced ozone loss (bromine 40%, chlorine 28%), due primarily to previously unconsidered heterogeneous chemistry. Anthropogenic (pollution) ozone has increased iodine emissions since preindustrial times (ca. factor of 3 since 1950) and could be partly responsible for the continued decrease of ozone in the lower stratosphere. Increasing iodine emissions have implications for ozone radiative forcing and possibly new particle formation near the tropopause.

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