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  1. Abstract We present a detailed study of the 2019 outburst of the cataclysmic variable V1047 Cen, which hosted a classical nova eruption in 2005. The peculiar outburst occurred 14 yr after the classical nova event and lasted for more than 400 days, reaching an amplitude of around 6 magnitudes in the optical. Early spectral follow-up revealed what could be a dwarf nova (accretion disk instability) outburst. However, the outburst duration, high-velocity (>2000 km s −1 ) features in the optical line profiles, luminous optical emission, and presence of prominent long-lasting radio emission together suggest a phenomenon more exotic and energetic than a dwarf nova outburst. The outburst amplitude, radiated energy, and spectral evolution are also not consistent with a classical nova eruption. There are similarities between V1047 Cen’s 2019 outburst and those of classical symbiotic stars, but pre-2005 images of the field of V1047 Cen indicate that the system likely hosts a dwarf companion, implying a typical cataclysmic variable system. Based on our multiwavelength observations, we suggest that the outburst may have started with a brightening of the disk due to enhanced mass transfer or disk instability, possibly leading to enhanced nuclear shell burning on the white dwarf, which was already experiencing some level of quasi-steady shell burning. This eventually led to the generation of a wind and/or bipolar, collimated outflows. The 2019 outburst of V1047 Cen appears to be unique, and nothing similar has been observed in a typical cataclysmic variable system before, hinting at a potentially new astrophysical phenomenon. 
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    ABSTRACT We present observations from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) of twenty bright core-collapse supernovae with peak TESS-band magnitudes ≲18 mag. We reduce this data with an implementation of the image subtraction pipeline used by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) optimized for use with the TESS images. In empirical fits to the rising light curves, we do not find strong correlations between the fit parameters and the peak luminosity. Existing semi-analytic models fit the light curves of the Type II supernovae well, but do not yield reasonable estimates of the progenitor radius or explosion energy, likely because they are derived for use with ultraviolet observations while TESS observes in the near-infrared. If we instead fit the data with numerically simulated light curves, the rising light curves of the Type II supernovae are consistent with the explosions of red supergiants. While we do not identify shock breakout emission for any individual event, when we combine the fit residuals of the Type II supernovae in our sample, we do find a >5σ flux excess in the ∼1 d before the start of the light-curve rise. It is likely that this excess is due to shock breakout emission, and that during its extended mission TESS will observe a Type II supernova bright enough for this signal to be detected directly. 
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    ABSTRACT We characterize the extreme heartbeat star system MACHO 80.7443.1718 in the Large Magellanic Cloud using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry and spectroscopic observations from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) and SOAR Goodman spectographs. MACHO 80.7443.1718 was first identified as a heartbeat star system in the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) with $P_{\rm orb}=32.836\pm 0.008\, {\rm d}$. MACHO 80.7443.1718 is a young (∼6 Myr), massive binary, composed of a B0 Iae supergiant with $M_1 \simeq 35\, {\rm M}_\odot$ and an O9.5V secondary with $M_2 \simeq 16\, {\rm M}_\odot$ on an eccentric (e = 0.51 ± 0.03) orbit. In addition to having the largest variability amplitude amongst all known heartbeats stars, MACHO 80.7443.1718 is also one of the most massive heartbeat stars yet discovered. The B[e] supergiant has Balmer emission lines and permitted/forbidden metallic emission lines associated with a circumstellar disc. The disc rapidly dissipates at periastron that could indicate mass transfer to the secondary, but re-emerges immediately following periastron passage. MACHO 80.7443.1718 also shows tidally excited oscillations at the N = 25 and N = 41 orbital harmonics and has a rotational period of 4.4 d. 
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  5. ABSTRACT One observational prediction for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) explosions produced through white dwarf–white dwarf collisions is the presence of bimodal velocity distributions for the 56Ni decay products, although this signature can also be produced by an off-centre ignition in a delayed detonation explosion. These bimodal velocity distributions can manifest as double-peaked or flat-topped spectral features in late-time spectroscopic observations for favourable viewing angles. We present nebular-phase spectroscopic observations of 17 SNe Ia obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope. Combining these observations with an extensive search of publicly available archival data, we collect a total sample of 48 SNe Ia and classify them based on whether they show compelling evidence for bimodal velocity profiles in three features associated with 56Ni decay products: the [Fe ii] and [Fe iii] feature at ∼5300 Å, the [Co iii] λ5891 feature, and the [Co iii] and [Fe ii] feature at ∼6600 Å. We identify nine bimodal SNe in our sample, and we find that these SNe have average peak MV about 0.3 mag fainter than those that do not. This is consistent with theoretical predictions for explosions created by nearly head-on collisions of white dwarfs due to viewing angle effects and 56Ni yields. 
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    We catalogue the 443 bright supernovae (SNe) discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) in 2018−2020 along with the 519 SNe recovered by ASAS-SN and 516 additional mpeak ≤ 18 mag SNe missed by ASAS-SN. Our statistical analysis focuses primarily on the 984 SNe discovered or recovered in ASAS-SN g-band observations. The complete sample of 2427 ASAS-SN SNe includes earlier V-band samples and unrecovered SNe. For each SN, we identify the host galaxy, its UV to mid-IR photometry, and the SN’s offset from the centre of the host. Updated peak magnitudes, redshifts, spectral classifications, and host galaxy identifications supersede earlier results. With the increase of the limiting magnitude to g ≤ 18 mag, the ASAS-SN sample is nearly complete up to mpeak = 16.7 mag and is 90 per cent complete for mpeak ≤ 17.0 mag. This is an increase from the V-band sample, where it was roughly complete up to mpeak = 16.2 mag and 70 per cent complete for mpeak ≤ 17.0 mag.

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    ABSTRACT We report the discovery of the closest known black hole candidate as a binary companion to V723 Mon. V723 Mon is a nearby ($d\sim 460\, \rm pc$), bright (V ≃ 8.3 mag), evolved (Teff, giant ≃ 4440 K, and Lgiant ≃ 173 L⊙) red giant in a high mass function, f(M) = 1.72 ± 0.01 M⊙, nearly circular binary (P = 59.9 d, e ≃ 0). V723 Mon is a known variable star, previously classified as an eclipsing binary, but its All-Sky Automated Survey, Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope, and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite light curves are those of a nearly edge-on ellipsoidal variable. Detailed models of the light curves constrained by the period, radial velocities, and stellar temperature give an inclination of $87.0^{\circ ^{+1.7^\circ }}_{-1.4^\circ }$, a mass ratio of q ≃ 0.33 ± 0.02, a companion mass of Mcomp = 3.04 ± 0.06 M⊙, a stellar radius of Rgiant = 24.9 ± 0.7 R⊙, and a giant mass of Mgiant = 1.00 ± 0.07 M⊙. We identify a likely non-stellar, diffuse veiling component with contributions in the B and V band of ${\sim }63{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ and ${\sim }24{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, respectively. The SED and the absence of continuum eclipses imply that the companion mass must be dominated by a compact object. We do observe eclipses of the Balmer lines when the dark companion passes behind the giant, but their velocity spreads are low compared to observed accretion discs. The X-ray luminosity of the system is $L_{\rm X}\simeq 7.6\times 10^{29}~\rm ergs~s^{-1}$, corresponding to L/Ledd ∼ 10−9. The simplest explanation for the massive companion is a single compact object, most likely a black hole in the ‘mass gap’. 
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  8. ABSTRACT SN 1993J is one of the best-studied Type IIb supernovae. Spectropolarimetric data analyses were published over two decades ago at a time when the field of supernova spectropolarimetry was in its infancy. Here, we present a new analysis of the spectropolarimetric data of SN 1993J and an improved estimate of its interstellar polarization (ISP) as well as a critical review of ISP removal techniques employed in the field. The polarization of SN 1993J is found to show significant alignment on the q − u plane, suggesting the presence of a dominant axis and therefore of continuum polarization. We also see strong line polarization features, including H β, He i λ5876, H α, He i λ6678, He i λ7065, and high velocity (HV) components of He i λ5876 and H α. SN 1993J is therefore the second example of a stripped-envelope supernova, alongside iPTF13bvn, with prominent HV helium polarization features, and the first to show a likely HV H α contribution. Overall, we determine that the observed features can be interpreted as the superposition of anisotropically distributed line forming regions over ellipsoidal ejecta. We cannot exclude the possibility of an off-axis energy source within the ejecta. These data demonstrate the rich structures that are inaccessible if solely considering the flux spectra but can be probed by spectropolarimetric observations. In future studies, the new ISP corrected data can be used in conjunction with 3D radiative transfer models to better map the geometry of the ejecta of SN 1993J. 
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  9. We present an observational study of the luminous red nova (LRN) AT 2021biy in the nearby galaxy NGC 4631. The field of the object was routinely imaged during the pre-eruptive stage by synoptic surveys, but the transient was detected only at a few epochs from ∼231 days before maximum brightness. The LRN outburst was monitored with unprecedented cadence both photometrically and spectroscopically. AT 2021biy shows a short-duration blue peak, with a bolometric luminosity of ∼1.6 × 10 41 erg s −1 , followed by the longest plateau among LRNe to date, with a duration of 210 days. A late-time hump in the light curve was also observed, possibly produced by a shell-shell collision. AT 2021biy exhibits the typical spectral evolution of LRNe. Early-time spectra are characterised by a blue continuum and prominent H emission lines. Then, the continuum becomes redder, resembling that of a K-type star with a forest of metal absorption lines during the plateau phase. Finally, late-time spectra show a very red continuum ( T BB  ≈ 2050 K) with molecular features (e.g., TiO) resembling those of M-type stars. Spectropolarimetric analysis indicates that AT 2021biy has local dust properties similar to those of V838 Mon in the Milky Way Galaxy. Inspection of archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on 2003 August 3 reveals a ∼20 M ⊙ progenitor candidate with log ( L / L ⊙ ) = 5.0 dex and T eff  = 5900 K at solar metallicity. The above luminosity and colour match those of a luminous yellow supergiant. Most likely, this source is a close binary, with a 17–24 M ⊙ primary component. 
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