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  1. Abstract

    Many barred galaxies exhibit upturns (shoulders) in their bar-major-axis density profile. Simulation studies have suggested that shoulders are supported by loopedx1orbits, occur in growing bars, and can appear after bar buckling. We investigate the orbital support and evolution of shoulders via frequency analyses of orbits in simulations. We confirm that looped orbits are shoulder-supporting, and can remain so, to a lesser extent, after being vertically thickened. We show that looped orbits appear at the resonance ( Ωφ− ΩP)/ΩR= 1/2 (analogous to the classical inner Lindblad resonance, and here called ILR) with vertical-to-radial frequency ratios 1 ≲ ΩzR≲ 3/2 (verticallywarmorbits).Coolorbits at the ILR (those with ΩzR> 3/2) are vertically thin and have no loops, contributing negligibly to shoulders. As bars slow and thicken, either secularly or by buckling, they populate warm orbits at the ILR. Further thickening carries these orbits toward crossing the vertical ILR [vILR, ( Ωφ− ΩP)/Ωz= 1/2], where they convert in-plane motion to vertical motion, become chaotic, kinematically hotter, and less shoulder-supporting. Hence, persistent shoulders require bars to trap new stars, consistent with the need for a growing bar. Since buckling speeds up trapping on warm orbits at the ILR, it can be followed by shoulder formation, as seenmore »in simulations. This sequence supports the recent observational finding that shoulders likely precede the emergence of BP-bulges. The python module for the frequency analysis,naif, is made available.

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  2. Abstract

    We present a new constraint on the mass of the black hole in the active S0 galaxy NGC 5273. Due to the proximity of the galaxy at 16.6 ± 2.1 Mpc, we were able to resolve and extract the bulk motions of stars near the central black hole using adaptive-optics-assisted observations with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph, as well as constrain the large-scale kinematics using archival Spectroscopic Areal Unit for Research and Optical Nebulae spectroscopy. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging allowed us to generate a surface-brightness decomposition, determine approximate mass-to-light ratios for the bulge and disk, and obtain an estimate for the disk inclination. We constructed an extensive library of dynamical models using the Schwarzschild orbit-superposition code FORSTAND, exploring a range of disk and bulge shapes, halo masses, etc. We determined a black hole mass ofM= [0.5–2] × 107M, where the low side of the range is in agreement with the reverberation mapping measurement ofM= [4.7 ± 1.6] × 106M. NGC 5273 is one of the few nearby galaxies that hosts a broad-lined active galactic nucleus, allowing a crucial comparison of black hole masses derived from independent mass-measurement techniques.

  3. Abstract

    We present the results of a new reverberation mapping campaign for the broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the edge-on spiral IC 4329A. Monitoring of the optical continuum withV-band photometry and broad emission-line flux variability with moderate-resolution spectroscopy allowed emission-line light curves to be measured for Hβ, Hγ, and Heiiλ4686. We find a time delay of16.32.3+2.6days for Hβ, a similar time delay of16.02.6+4.8days for Hγ, and an unresolved time delay of0.63.9+3.9days for Heii. The time delay for Hβis consistent with the predicted value from the relationship between AGN luminosity and broad-line region radius, after correction for the ∼2.4 mag of intrinsic extinction at 5100 Å. Combining the measured time delay for Hβwith the broad emission-line width and an adopted value of 〈f〉 = 4.8, we find a central supermassive black hole mass ofMBH=6.81.1+1.2×107M. Velocity-resolved time delays were measured across the broad Hβemission-line profile and may be consistent with an “M”-like shape. Modeling of the full reverberation response of Hβwas able to provide only modest constraints on some parameters, but does exhibit agreement with the black hole mass and average time delay. The models also suggest that themore »AGN structure is misaligned by a large amount from the edge-on galaxy disk. This is consistent with expectations from the unified model of AGNs, in which broad emission lines are expected to be visible only for AGNs that are viewed at relatively face-on inclinations.

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  4. ABSTRACT In the currently favoured cosmological paradigm galaxies form hierarchically through the accretion of satellites. Since a satellite is less massive than the host, its stars occupy a smaller volume in action space. Actions are conserved when the potential of the host halo changes adiabatically, so stars from an accreted satellite would remain clustered in action space as the host evolves. In this paper, we identify recently disrupted accreted satellites in three Milky Way-like disc galaxies from the cosmological baryonic FIRE-2 simulations by tracking satellites through simulation snapshots. We try to recover these satellites by applying the cluster analysis algorithm Enlink to the orbital actions of accreted star particles in the z = 0 snapshot. Even with completely error-free mock data we find that only 35 per cent (14/39) satellites are well recovered while the rest (25/39) are poorly recovered (i.e. either contaminated or split up). Most (10/14 ∼70 per cent) of the well-recovered satellites have infall times <7.1 Gyr ago and total mass >4 × 108M⊙ (stellar mass more than 1.2 × 106 M⊙, although our upper mass limit is likely to be resolution dependent). Since cosmological simulations predict that stellar haloes include a population of in situ stars, we test our ability to recover satellites when the datamore »include 10–50 per cent in situ contamination. We find that most previously well-recovered satellites stay well recovered even with 50 per cent contamination. With the wealth of 6D phase space data becoming available we expect that cluster analysis in action space will be useful in identifying the majority of recently accreted and moderately massive satellites in the Milky Way.« less

    We have used Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images, SAURON Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS), and adaptative optics assisted Gemini NIFS near-infrared K-band IFS to map the stellar and gas distribution, excitation and kinematics of the inner few kpc of the nearby edge-on S0 galaxy NGC 4111. The HST images map its ≈450 pc diameter dusty polar ring, with an estimated gas mass ≥107 M⊙. The NIFS data cube maps the inner 110 pc radius at ≈7 pc spatial resolution, revealing a ≈220 pc diameter polar ring in hot (2267 ± 166 K) molecular H2 1–0 S(1) gas embedded in the polar ring. The stellar velocity field shows disc-dominated kinematics along the galaxy plane both in the SAURON large scale and in the NIFS nuclear-scale data. The large-scale [O iii] λ5007 Å velocity field shows a superposition of two disc kinematics: one similar to that of the stars and another along the polar ring, showing non-circular motions that seem to connect with the velocity field of the nuclear H2 ring, whose kinematics indicate accelerated inflow to the nucleus. The estimated mass inflow rate is enough not only to feed an active galactic nucleus (AGN) but also to trigger circumnuclear star formation in the near future. We propose a scenario in which gasmore »from the polar ring, which probably originated from the capture of a dwarf galaxy, is moving inwards and triggering an AGN, as supported by the local X-ray emission, which seems to be the source of the H2 1–0 S(1) excitation. The fact that we see neither near-UV nor Br γ emission suggests that the nascent AGN is still deeply buried under the optically thick dust of the polar ring.

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  6. Abstract

    We describe the Milky Way Survey (MWS) that will be undertaken with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) on the Mayall 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Over the next 5 yr DESI MWS will observe approximately seven million stars at Galactic latitudes ∣b∣ > 20°, with an inclusive target selection scheme focused on the thick disk and stellar halo. MWS will also include several high-completeness samples of rare stellar types, including white dwarfs, low-mass stars within 100 pc of the Sun, and horizontal branch stars. We summarize the potential of DESI to advance understanding of the Galactic structure and stellar evolution. We introduce the final definitions of the main MWS target classes and estimate the number of stars in each class that will be observed. We describe our pipelines for deriving radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundances. We use ≃500,000 spectra of unique stellar targets from the DESI Survey Validation program (SV) to demonstrate that our pipelines can measure radial velocities to ≃1 km s−1and [Fe/H] accurate to ≃0.2 dex for typical stars in our main sample. We find the stellar parameter distributions from ≈100 deg2of SV observations with ≳90% completeness on our mainmore »sample are in good agreement with expectations from mock catalogs and previous surveys.

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