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  1. Robotic task planning is computationally challenging. To reduce planning cost and support life-long operation, we must leverage prior planning experience. To this end, we address the problem of extracting reusable and generalizable abstract skills from successful plan executions. In previous work, we introduced a supporting framework, allowing us, theoretically, to extract an abstract skill from a single execution and later automatically adapt it and reuse it in new domains. We also proved that, given a library of such skills, we can significantly reduce the planning effort for new problems. Nevertheless, until now, abstract-skill extraction could only be performed manually. In this paper, we finally close the automation loop and explain how abstract skills can be practically and automatically extracted. We start by analyzing the desired qualities of an abstract skill and formulate skill extraction as an optimization problem. We then develop two extraction algorithms, based on the novel concept of abstraction-critical state detection. As we show experimentally, the approach is independent of any planning domain. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 29, 2024
  2. The problems of verification and realizability are two central themes in the analysis of reactive systems. When multiagent systems are considered, these problems have natural analogues of existence (nonemptiness) of pure-strategy Nash equilibria and verification of pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Recently, this body of work has begun to include finite-horizon temporal goals. With finite-horizon temporal goals, there is a natural hierarchy of goal representation, ranging from deterministic finite automata (DFA), to nondeterministic finite automata (NFA), and to alternating finite automata (AFA), with a worst-case exponential gap between each successive representation. Previous works showed that the realizability problem with DFA goals was PSPACE-complete, while the realizability problem with temporal logic goals is in 2EXPTIME. In this work, we study both the realizability and the verification problems with respect to various goal representations. We first show that the realizability problem with NFA goals is EXPTIME-complete and with AFA goals is 2EXPTIME-complete, thus establishing strict complexity gaps between realizability with respect to DFA, NFA, and AFA goals. We then contrast these complexity gaps with the complexity of the verification problem, where we show that verification with respect to DFAs, NFA, and AFA goals is PSPACE-complete.

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  3. Reactive synthesis from high-level specifications that combine hard constraints expressed in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) with soft constraints expressed by discounted sum (DS) rewards has applications in planning and reinforcement learning. An existing approach combines techniques from LTL synthesis with optimization for the DS rewards but has failed to yield a sound algorithm. An alternative approach combining LTL synthesis with satisficing DS rewards (rewards that achieve a threshold) is sound and complete for integer discount factors, but, in practice, a fractional discount factor is desired. This work extends the existing satisficing approach, presenting the first sound algorithm for synthesis from LTL and DS rewards with fractional discount factors. The utility of our algorithm is demonstrated on robotic planning domains. 
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  4. Do agents know each others’ strategies? In multi-process software construction, each process has access to the processes already constructed; but in typical human-robot interactions, a human may not announce its strategy to the robot (indeed, the human may not even know their own strategy). This question has often been overlooked when modeling and reasoning about multi-agent systems. In this work, we study how it impacts strategic reasoning.To do so we consider Strategy Logic (SL), a well-established and highly expressive logic for strategic reasoning. Its usual semantics, which we call “white-box semantics”, models systems in which agents “broadcast” their strategies. By adding imperfect information to the evaluation games for the usual semantics, we obtain a new semantics called “black-box semantics”, in which agents keep their strategies private. We consider the model-checking problem and show that the black-box semantics has much lower complexity than white-box semantics for an important fragment of Strategy Logic.

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  5. Synthesis techniques for temporal logic specifications are typically based on exploiting symbolic techniques, as done in model checking. These symbolic techniques typically use backward fixpoint computation. Planning, which can be seen as a specific form of synthesis, is a witness of the success of forward search approaches. In this paper, we develop a forward-search approach to full-fledged Linear Temporal Logic on finite traces (LTLf) synthesis. We show how to compute the Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA) of an LTLf formula on-the-fly, while performing an adversarial forward search towards the final states, by considering the DFA as a sort of AND-OR graph. Our approach is characterized by branching on suitable propositional formulas, instead of individual evaluations, hence radically reducing the branching factor of the search space. Specifically, we take advantage of techniques developed for knowledge compilation, such as Sentential Decision Diagrams (SDDs), to implement the approach efficiently.

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  6. Dana Fisman and Grigore Rosu (Ed.)
    Motivated by applications in boolean-circuit design, boolean synthesis is the process of synthesizing a boolean function with multiple outputs, given a relation between its inputs and outputs. Previous work has attempted to solve boolean functional synthesis by converting a specification formula into a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) and quantifying existentially the output variables. We make use of the fact that the specification is usually given in the form of a Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) formula, and we can perform resolution on a symbolic representation of a CNF formula in the form of a Zero-suppressed Binary Decision Diagram (ZDD). We adapt the realizability test to the context of CNF and ZDD, and show that the Cross operation defined in earlier work can be used for witness construction. Experiments show that our approach is complementary to BDD-based Boolean synthesis. 
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