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Creators/Authors contains: "Veeraraghavan, Ashok"

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  1. Abstract

    Subwavelength diffractive optics known as meta-optics have demonstrated the potential to significantly miniaturize imaging systems. However, despite impressive demonstrations, most meta-optical imaging systems suffer from strong chromatic aberrations, limiting their utilities. Here, we employ inverse-design to create broadband meta-optics operating in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) regime (8-12μm). Via a deep-learning assisted multi-scale differentiable framework that links meta-atoms to the phase, we maximize the wavelength-averaged volume under the modulation transfer function (MTF) surface of the meta-optics. Our design framework merges local phase-engineering via meta-atoms and global engineering of the scatterer within a single pipeline. We corroborate our design by fabricating and experimentally characterizing all-silicon LWIR meta-optics. Our engineered meta-optic is complemented by a simple computational backend that dramatically improves the quality of the captured image. We experimentally demonstrate a six-fold improvement of the wavelength-averaged Strehl ratio over the traditional hyperboloid metalens for broadband imaging.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Mesoscopic calcium imaging enables studies of cell-type specific neural activity over large areas. A growing body of literature suggests that neural activity can be different when animals are free to move compared to when they are restrained. Unfortunately, existing systems for imaging calcium dynamics over large areas in non-human primates (NHPs) are table-top devices that require restraint of the animal’s head. Here, we demonstrate an imaging device capable of imaging mesoscale calcium activity in a head-unrestrained male non-human primate. We successfully miniaturize our system by replacing lenses with an optical mask and computational algorithms. The resulting lensless microscope can fit comfortably on an NHP, allowing its head to move freely while imaging. We are able to measure orientation columns maps over a 20 mm2field-of-view in a head-unrestrained macaque. Our work establishes mesoscopic imaging using a lensless microscope as a powerful approach for studying neural activity under more naturalistic conditions.

     
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  3. We present a novel architecture for the design of single-photon detecting arrays that captures relative intensity or timing information from a scene, rather than absolute. The proposed method for capturing relative information between pixels or groups of pixels requires very little circuitry, and thus allows for a significantly higher pixel packing factor than is possible with per-pixel TDC approaches. The inherently compressive nature of the differential measurements also reduces data throughput and lends itself to physical implementations of compressed sensing, such as Haar wavelets. We demonstrate this technique for HDR imaging and LiDAR, and describe possible future applications.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Histopathology plays a critical role in the diagnosis and surgical management of cancer. However, access to histopathology services, especially frozen section pathology during surgery, is limited in resource-constrained settings because preparing slides from resected tissue is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and requires expensive infrastructure. Here, we report a deep-learning-enabled microscope, named DeepDOF-SE, to rapidly scan intact tissue at cellular resolution without the need for physical sectioning. Three key features jointly make DeepDOF-SE practical. First, tissue specimens are stained directly with inexpensive vital fluorescent dyes and optically sectioned with ultra-violet excitation that localizes fluorescent emission to a thin surface layer. Second, a deep-learning algorithm extends the depth-of-field, allowing rapid acquisition of in-focus images from large areas of tissue even when the tissue surface is highly irregular. Finally, a semi-supervised generative adversarial network virtually stains DeepDOF-SE fluorescence images with hematoxylin-and-eosin appearance, facilitating image interpretation by pathologists without significant additional training. We developed the DeepDOF-SE platform using a data-driven approach and validated its performance by imaging surgical resections of suspected oral tumors. Our results show that DeepDOF-SE provides histological information of diagnostic importance, offering a rapid and affordable slide-free histology platform for intraoperative tumor margin assessment and in low-resource settings.

     
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 12, 2025
  6. Laser speckle contrast imaging is widely used in clinical studies to monitor blood flow distribution. Speckle contrast tomography, similar to diffuse optical tomography, extends speckle contrast imaging to provide deep tissue blood flow information. However, the current speckle contrast tomography techniques suffer from poor spatial resolution and involve both computation and memory intensive reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we present SpeckleCam, a camera-based system to reconstruct high resolution 3D blood flow distribution deep inside the skin. Our approach replaces the traditional forward model using diffuse approximations with Monte-Carlo simulations-based convolutional forward model, which enables us to develop an improved deep tissue blood flow reconstruction algorithm. We show that our proposed approach can recover complex structures up to 6 mm deep inside a tissue-like scattering medium in the reflection geometry. We also conduct human experiments to demonstrate that our approach can detect reduced flow in major blood vessels during vascular occlusion.

     
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  7. Foveated imaging provides a better tradeoff between situational awareness (field of view) and resolution, and is critical in long wavelength infrared regimes because of the size, weight, power, and cost of thermal sensors. We demonstrate computational foveated imaging by exploiting the ability of a meta-optical frontend to discriminate between different polarization states and a computational backend to reconstruct the captured image/video. The frontend is a three-element optic: the first element, which we call the “foveal” element, is a metalens that focuses s-polarized light at a distance off1without affecting the p-polarized light; the second element, which we call the “perifovea” element, is another metalens that focuses p-polarized light at a distance off2without affecting thes-polarized light. The third element is a freely rotating polarizer that dynamically changes the mixing ratios between the two polarization states. Both the foveal element (focal length=150mm; diameter=75mm) and the perifoveal element (focal length=25mm; diameter=25mm) were fabricated as polarization-sensitive, all-silicon, meta surfaces resulting in a large-aperture, 1:6 foveal expansion, thermal imaging capability. A computational backend then utilizes a deep image prior to separate the resultant multiplexed image or video into a foveated image consisting of a high resolution center and a lower-resolution large field of view context. We build a prototype system and demonstrate 12 frames per second real-time, thermal, foveated image and video capture..

     
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  8. Traditional miniaturized fluorescence microscopes are critical tools for modern biology. Invariably, they struggle to simultaneously image with a high spatial resolution and a large field of view (FOV). Lensless microscopes offer a solution to this limitation. However, real-time visualization of samples is not possible with lensless imaging, as image reconstruction can take minutes to complete. This poses a challenge for usability, as real-time visualization is a crucial feature that assists users in identifying and locating the imaging target. The issue is particularly pronounced in lensless microscopes that operate at close imaging distances. Imaging at close distances requires shift-varying deconvolution to account for the variation of the point spread function (PSF) across the FOV. Here, we present a lensless microscope that achieves real-time image reconstruction by eliminating the use of an iterative reconstruction algorithm. The neural network-based reconstruction method we show here, achieves more than 10000 times increase in reconstruction speed compared to iterative reconstruction. The increased reconstruction speed allows us to visualize the results of our lensless microscope at more than 25 frames per second (fps), while achieving better than 7 µm resolution over a FOV of 10 mm2. This ability to reconstruct and visualize samples in real-time empowers a more user-friendly interaction with lensless microscopes. The users are able to use these microscopes much like they currently do with conventional microscopes.

     
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  9. Diffraction-limited optical imaging through scattering media has the potential to transform many applications such as airborne and space-based imaging (through the atmosphere), bioimaging (through skin and human tissue), and fiber-based imaging (through fiber bundles). Existing wavefront shaping methods can image through scattering media and other obscurants by optically correcting wavefront aberrations using high-resolution spatial light modulators—but these methods generally require (i) guidestars, (ii) controlled illumination, (iii) point scanning, and/or (iv) statics scenes and aberrations. We propose neural wavefront shaping (NeuWS), a scanning-free wavefront shaping technique that integrates maximum likelihood estimation, measurement modulation, and neural signal representations to reconstruct diffraction-limited images through strong static and dynamic scattering media without guidestars, sparse targets, controlled illumination, nor specialized image sensors. We experimentally demonstrate guidestar-free, wide field-of-view, high-resolution, diffraction-limited imaging of extended, nonsparse, and static/dynamic scenes captured through static/dynamic aberrations.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024