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  1. Diatoms are a group of single-celled photosynthetic algae that use biochemical pathways to bio-mineralize and self-assemble three-dimensional photonic crystals with unique photonic and micro- & nano-fluidic properties. In recent years, diatom biosilica has been used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based optofluidic sensors for detection of a variety of chemical and biological molecules. In this paper, we present a study to develop a microfluidic pumping system using super-hydrophilic diatom thin films. The desire to develop such a system stems from the requirement to create a low-cost, self-powered microfluidic pumping system that can sustain a continuous flow over an extended period of time. The diatom biosilica acts not only as the driving force behind the flow, but also serves as ultra-sensitive SERS substrates that allows for trace detection of various molecules. Liquid is drawn from a reservoir to the tip of a 150μm inner diameter capillary tube positioned directly over the diatom film. A thin and long horizontal reservoir is used to prevent flooding on the diatom film when the liquid is initially drawn to the diatom film through a capillary tube from the reservoir. The connection of the meniscus from the capillary to the film was maintained from a horizontalmore »reservoir for a recorded time of 20 hours and 32 minutes before the partially filled reservoir emptied. Flow rates of 0.38, 0.22 and 0.16µL/min were achieved for square biosilica thin films of 49mm2, 25mm2, and 9mm2 at a temperature of 63̊F and 45% relative humidity respectively. A temperature-controlled system was introduced for the 49mm2 substrate and flow rates of 0.60, 0.82, 0.93, and 1.15µL/min were observed at 72, 77, 86, and 95̊F at 21% relative humidity respectively. More testing and analysis will be performed to test the operation limits of the proposed self-powered microfluidic system.« less
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  7. Abstract Isolated neutron stars that are asymmetric with respect to their spin axis are possible sources of detectable continuous gravitational waves. This paper presents a fully coherent search for such signals from eighteen pulsars in data from LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run (O3). For known pulsars, efficient and sensitive matched-filter searches can be carried out if one assumes the gravitational radiation is phase-locked to the electromagnetic emission. In the search presented here, we relax this assumption and allow both the frequency and the time derivative of the frequency of the gravitational waves to vary in a small range around those inferred from electromagnetic observations. We find no evidence for continuous gravitational waves, and set upper limits on the strain amplitude for each target. These limits are more constraining for seven of the targets than the spin-down limit defined by ascribing all rotational energy loss to gravitational radiation. In an additional search, we look in O3 data for long-duration (hours–months) transient gravitational waves in the aftermath of pulsar glitches for six targets with a total of nine glitches. We report two marginal outliers from this search, but find no clear evidence for such emission either. The resulting duration-dependent strain uppermore »limits do not surpass indirect energy constraints for any of these targets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023