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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2024
  2. As account compromises and malicious online attacks are on the rise, multi-factor authentication (MFA) has been adopted to defend against these attacks. OTP and mobile push notification are just two examples of the popularly adopted MFA factors. Although MFA improve security, they also add additional steps or hardware to the authentication process, thus increasing the authentication time and introducing friction. On the other hand, keystroke dynamics-based authentication is believed to be a promising MFA for increasing security while reducing friction. While there have been several studies on the usability of other MFA factors, the usability of keystroke dynamics has not been studied. To this end, we have built a web authentication system with the standard features of signup, login and account recovery, and integrated keystroke dynamics as an additional factor. We then conducted a user study on the system where 20 participants completed tasks related to signup, login and account recovery. We have also evaluated a new approach for completing the user enrollment process, which reduces friction by naturally employing other alternative MFA factors (OTP in our study) when keystroke dynamics is not ready for use. Our study shows that while maintaining strong security (0% FPR), adding keystroke dynamics reduces authentication friction by avoiding 66.3% of OTP at login and 85.8% of OTP at account recovery, which in turn reduces the authentication time by 63.3% and 78.9% for login and account recovery respectively. Through an exit survey, all participants have rated the integration of keystroke dynamics with OTP to be more preferable to the conventional OTP-only authentication. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 24, 2024
  3. The ubiquity of mobile devices nowadays necessitates securing the apps and user information stored therein. However, existing one-time entry-point authentication mechanisms and enhanced security mechanisms such as Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) are prone to a wide vector of attacks. Furthermore, MFA also introduces friction to the user experience. Therefore, what is needed is continuous authentication that once passing the entry-point authentication, will protect the mobile devices on a continuous basis by confirming the legitimate owner of the device and locking out detected impostor activities. Hence, more research is needed on the dynamic methods of mobile security such as behavioral biometrics-based continuous authentication, which is cost-effective and passive as the data utilized to authenticate users are logged from the phone's sensors. However, currently, there are not many mobile authentication datasets to perform benchmarking research. In this work, we share two novel mobile datasets (Clarkson University (CU) Mobile datasets I and II) consisting of multi-modality behavioral biometrics data from 49 and 39 users respectively (88 users in total). Each of our datasets consists of modalities such as swipes, keystrokes, acceleration, gyroscope, and pattern-tracing strokes. These modalities are collected when users are filling out a registration form in sitting both as genuine and impostor users. To exhibit the usefulness of the datasets, we have performed initial experiments on selected individual modalities from the datasets as well as the fusion of simultaneously available modalities. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 24, 2024
  4. Keystroke dynamics has gained relevance over the years for its potential in solving practical problems like online fraud and account takeovers. Statistical algorithms such as distance measures have long been a common choice for keystroke authentication due to their simplicity and ease of implementation. However, deep learning has recently started to gain popularity due to their ability to achieve better performance. When should statistical algorithms be preferred over deep learning and vice-versa? To answer this question, we set up experiments to evaluate two state-of-the-art statistical algorithms: Scaled Manhattan and the Instance-based Tail Area Density (ITAD) metric, with a state-of-the-art deep learning model called TypeNet, on three datasets (one small and two large). Our results show that on the small dataset, statistical algorithms significantly outperform the deep learning approach (Equal Error Rate (EER) of 4.3% for Scaled Manhattan / 1.3% for ITAD versus 19.18% for TypeNet ). However, on the two large datasets, the deep learning approach performs better (22.9% & 28.07% for Scaled Manhattan / 12.25% & 20.74% for ITAD versus 0.93% & 6.77% for TypeNet). 
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  5. Account recovery is ubiquitous across web applications but circumvents the username/password-based login step. Therefore, it deserves the same level of security as the user authentication process. A common simplistic procedure for account recovery requires that a user enters the same email used during registration, to which a password recovery link or a new username could be sent. Therefore, an impostor with access to a user’s registration email and other credentials can trigger an account recovery session to take over the user’s account. To prevent such attacks, beyond validating the email and other credentials entered by the user, our proposed recovery method utilizes keystroke dynamics to further secure the account recovery mechanism. Keystroke dynamics is a type of behavioral biometrics that uses the analysis of typing rhythm for user authentication. Using a new dataset with over 500,000 keystrokes collected from 44 students and university staff when they fill out an account recovery web form of multiple fields, we have evaluated the performance of five scoring algorithms on individual fields as well as feature-level fusion and weighted-score fusion. We achieve the best EER of 5.47% when keystroke dynamics from individual fields are used, 0% for a feature-level fusion of five fields, and 0% for a weighted-score fusion of seven fields. Our work represents a new kind of keystroke dynamics that we would like to call it ‘medium fixed-text’ as it sits between the conventional (short) fixed text and (long) free text research. 
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