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  1. This paper proposes two fully sequential procedures for selecting the best system with a guaranteed probability of correct selection (PCS). The main features of the proposed procedures include the following: (1) adopting a Bonferroni-free model that overcomes the conservativeness of the Bonferroni correction and delivers the exact probabilistic guarantee without overshooting; (2) conducting always valid and fully sequential hypothesis tests that enable continuous monitoring of each candidate system and control the type I error rate (or equivalently, PCS) at a prescribed level; and (3) assuming an indifference-zone-flexible formulation, which means that the indifference-zone parameter is not indispensable but could be helpful if provided. We establish statistical validity and asymptotic efficiency for the proposed procedures under normality settings with and without the knowledge of true variances. Numerical studies conducted under various configurations corroborate the theoretical findings and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed procedures. Funding: W. Wang and H. Wan were supported in part by CollinStar Capital Pty Ltd. X. Chen was supported in part by the National Science Foundation [Grant IIS-1849300 and CAREER CMMI-1846663]. Supplemental Material: The online appendix is available at https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.2023.2447 . 
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  2. Machine learning and blockchain are two of the most notable technologies of recent years. The first is the foundation of artificial intelligence and big data analysis, and the second has significantly disrupted the financial industry. Both technologies are data‐driven, and thus there are rapidly growing interests in integrating both for more secure and efficient data sharing and analysis. In this article, we review existing research on combining machine learning and blockchain technologies and demonstrate that they can collaborate efficiently and effectively. In the end, we point out some future directions and expect more research on deeper integration of these two promising technologies.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Although the reversible and inexpensive energy storage characteristics of the lithium–sulfur (Li‐S) battery have made it a promising candidate for electrical energy storage, the dendrite growth (anode) and shuttle effect (cathode) hinder its practical application. Here, it is shown that new electrolytes for Li‐S batteries promote the simultaneous formation of bilateral solid electrolyte interfaces on the sulfur‐host cathode and lithium anode, thus effectively suppressing the shuttle effect and dendrite growth. These high‐capacity Li‐S batteries with new electrolytes exhibit a long‐term cycling stability, ultrafast‐charge/slow‐discharge rates, super‐low self‐discharge performance, and a capacity retention of 94.9% even after a 130 d long storage. Importantly, the long cycle stability of these industrial grade high‐capacity Li‐S pouch cells with new electrolytes will provide the basis for creating robust energy dense Li‐S batteries with an extensive life cycle.

     
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