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  1. The intermittency of renewable energy sources makes the use of energy storage systems (ESSs) indispensable in modern power grids for supply-demand balancing and reliability enhancement. Besides pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations, energy storage deployment worldwide is still quite low. However, the status quo might rapidly change as the energy storage technologies are growing and facilitating market regulations are being ratified. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs), Li-ion batteries in particular, possess attractive properties and are taking over other types of storage technologies. Thus, in this article, we review and evaluate the current state of the art in managing grid-connected Li-ion BESSs and their participation in electricity markets. The review mainly includes battery modeling, the architecture of battery management systems (BMSs), the incorporation of BESSs for electricity market services, global utility-scale battery storage facilities, and challenges in implementing and managing grid-connected BESSs.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 5, 2023
  2. A high-voltage-gain dc-dc converter topology is proposed for renewable energy applications. The proposed coupled-inductor-based high-gain dc-dc converter features reduced input current ripple. The semiconductor elements voltage spikes due to the leakage inductance are prevented through the use of a clamping circuit. The Clamping circuit helps recover the leakage inductance stored energy, which causes voltage spikes on the switch. This results in the selection of elements with lower voltage ratings. Power switches with lower voltage ratings lead to lower conduction losses and improved system efficiency. The DC component of the inductor magnetizing current is zero. Consequently, no energy is stored in the inductor core, and the losses are further reduced.
  3. A new high-voltage-gain non-isolated dc-dc topology for applications in renewable energies is proposed. A coupled inductor with three windings is used to increase the proposed topology voltage gain. In addition to increasing the voltage gain, the proposed topology also has other prominent features including continuous input current and zero dc magnetizing inductance current, which reduces the losses and size of coupled inductor core. Furthermore, the continuous input current guarantees a low-volume input filter, which is essential for renewable energy applications. The leakage inductor stored energy is recycled via the diode and capacitor and transferred to the converter output for increasing the efficiency and reducing voltage stresses on the converter components.
  4. This paper proposes a solar energy harvesting based modular battery balance system for electric vehicles. The proposed system is designed to charge the battery module with minimum SOC/voltage by solar power during charging and discharging. With the solar power input, the useful energy of the battery can be improved while vehicle driving. For vehicle charging, the charging energy from grid and total charging time can be reduced as well. Simulation analysis shows that for a 50Ah rated battery pack, the overall pure electric drive mileage can be improved by 22.9%, while consumed grid energy and total charging time can be reduced by 9.6% and 9.3% respectively. In addition, the battery life can be improved around 10%~11%. The prototype design and test of a 48V battery pack vehicle consisting of four 12V battery modules are carried out. The experimental results validate that the system has good modular balance performance for the 100Ah battery modules with 5~7A charging current from solar power, and the overall usable battery energy has been increased.